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Lothian
Lothian
Lothian
(/ˈloʊðiən/; Scots: Lowden;[2] Scottish Gaelic: Lodainn [ˈɫ̪ot̪aɲ]) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
and the Lammermuir Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish capital, Edinburgh, while other significant towns include Livingston, Linlithgow, Queensferry, Dalkeith, Musselburgh, North Berwick, Dunbar, and Haddington. Historically, the term Lothian
Lothian
referred to a province encompassing most of what is now southeastern Scotland. In the 7th century it came under the control of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, the northern part of the later kingdom of Northumbria, but the Angles' grip on Lothian
Lothian
was quickly weakened following the Battle of Nechtansmere in which they were defeated by the Picts
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Little France
Little France
Little France
is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is on the A7 approximately 4 miles south of the city centre. The area falls within the parish of Liberton in the south-east of the city. It acquired its name from members of the entourage brought to Scotland
Scotland
from France by Mary, Queen of Scots, who took up residence at nearby Craigmillar
Craigmillar
Castle. The French left the city following the Siege of Leith
Siege of Leith
under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburgh.[1] Little France
Little France
is the location of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, and is adjacent to Craigour which is just to its south.[2] Sources[edit]^ Harris, Stuart (1991). "The fortifications and siege of Leith: a further study of the map of the siege in 1560" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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River Tees
The River Tees
River Tees
(/tiːz/) is in northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell
Cross Fell
in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles (137 km) to reach the North Sea
North Sea
between Hartlepool and Redcar
Redcar
near Middlesbrough.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 Water levels 3 Seal Sands 4 Alterations 5 Industrialisation of the River Tees 6 Legends and folklore 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External linksGeography[edit] The river drains 710 square miles (1,800 km2) and has a number of tributaries including the River Greta, River Lune, River Balder, River Leven and River Skerne.[2] Before the reorganisation of the historic English counties, the river formed the boundary between County Durham and Yorkshire
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Angles (people)
The Angles
Angles
(Latin: Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
who settled in Great Britain
Great Britain
in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms of Anglo- Saxon
Saxon
England, and their name is the root of the name England. The name comes from Anglia (Angeln), a peninsula located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein.Contents1 Name 2 Greco-Roman historiography2.1 Tacitus 2.2 Ptolemy3 Medieval historiography 4 Archaeology 5 Anglian kingdoms in England 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further readingName[edit] The name of the Angles
Angles
may have been first recorded in Latinised form, as Anglii, in the Germania
Germania
of Tacitus
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Scots Language
In the 2011 census, respondents indicated that 1.54 million (30%) are able to speak Scots.[3] Language
Language
familyIndo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicIngvaeonicAnglo-FrisianAnglicScotsEarly formsOld EnglishMiddle EnglishEarly ScotsMiddle ScotsDialectsCentral Southern Ulster Northern InsularWriting systemLatinOfficial statusOfficial language inNoneClassified as a "traditional language" by the Scottish Government. Classified as a "regional or minority language" under the
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Celtic Deities
The gods and goddesses of the pre-Christian Celtic peoples are known from a variety of sources, including ancient places of worship, statues, engravings, cult objects and place or personal names. The ancient Celts
Celts
appear to have had a pantheon of deities comparable to others in Indo-European religion, each linked to aspects of life and the natural world. By a process of synthesism, after the Roman conquest of Celtic areas, these became associated with their Roman equivalent, and their worship continued until Christianization. Ancient Celtic art
Celtic art
produced few images of deities, and these are hard to identify, lacking inscriptions, but in the post-conquest period many more images were made, some with inscriptions naming the deity. Most of the specific information we have therefore comes from Latin writers and the archaeology of the post-conquest period
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Arthurian Legend
By century10th 11th 12th 13th 14thEuropean Renaissance15th century Literature portalv t ePart of a series onCeltic mythologyPolytheism Deities (list) AnimismGaelic mythologyIrish ScottishTuath Dé Fomhoraigh Hebridean mythology and folkloreMythological CycleUlster CycleFianna CycleBrythonic mythologyWelsh Breton CornishBritish Iron Age religionMabinogionMatter of BritainTrioedd Ynys PrydeinConceptsOtherworld Champion's portion Geis Imbas forosnai Loathly lady Magic mist Sacred trees Shapeshifting Silver Branch Threefold death Wasteland Well of wisdomReligious vocationsDruids Bards VatesFestivalsSamhain Calan GaeafImbolc Gŵyl FairBeltane Calan MaiLughnasadh Calan AwstCategory
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Deira
Deira
Deira
(Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a Celtic kingdom – first recorded (but much older) by the Anglo-Saxons in 559 AD and lasted til 664 AD,[1] in Northern England
Northern England
that was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.[2] It extended from the Humber
Humber
to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York
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Roger Of Wendover
Roger of Wendover
Wendover
(died 6 May 1236), probably a native of Wendover
Wendover
in Buckinghamshire, was an English chronicler of the 13th century. At an uncertain date he became a monk at St Albans
St Albans
Abbey; afterwards he was appointed prior of the cell of Belvoir, but he forfeited this dignity in the early years of Henry III, having been found guilty of wasting the endowments. His latter years were passed at St Albans, where he died on 6 May 1236.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Notes 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] He is the first in the series of important chroniclers who worked at St Albans. His best-known chronicle, called the Flores Historiarum (Flowers of History), is based in large part on material which already existed at St Albans
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Edgar Of England
Edgar (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 943—8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death. He was the younger son of Edmund I
Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury, and came to the throne as a teenager, following the death of his older brother Eadwig. As king, Edgar further consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors, with his reign being noted for its relative stability. His most trusted advisor was Dunstan, whom he recalled from exile and made Archbishop of Canterbury
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River Forth
The River Forth
River Forth
is a major river, 47 km (29 mi) long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire
Stirlingshire
in Scotland's Central Belt.[1] The Gaelic name is Abhainn Dubh, meaning "black river", in the upper reach above Stirling. Below the tidal reach,[2] (just after being crossed by the M9 motorway) its name is Uisge For. The Forth rises in the Trossachs, a mountainous area 30 km (19 mi) west of Stirling. Ben Lomond's eastern slopes drain into the Duchray Water
Duchray Water
which meets with Avondhu River coming from Loch Ard. The confluence of these two streams is the nominal start of the River Forth.[3] From there it flows roughly eastward, through Aberfoyle, joining with the Kelty Water, about 5 km further downstream. The vast flat expanse of the Carse
Carse
of Stirling
Stirling
follows including Flanders Moss
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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
(r. 871–899). Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116
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Malcolm III Of Scotland
Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093) was King of Scots
King of Scots
from 1058 to 1093. He was later nicknamed "Canmore" ("ceann mòr", Gaelic for "Great Chief": "ceann" denotes "leader", "head" (of state) and "mòr" denotes "pre-eminent", "great", and "big").[1][2] Malcolm's long reign of 35 years preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He had grandchildren from England. His was Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
and William Adelin. Henry I of England
England
is Malcolm III of Scotland's son-in-law. Malcolm's kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland
Scotland
remained under Scandinavian following the Norse invasions. Malcolm III fought a series of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as its objective the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria
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Welsh Language
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3] England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5](data not from 2011 census) Canada: L1,<3,885,[6] United States: ~2,235 (2009-2013) (2017)Language familyIndo-EuropeanCelticInsular CelticBrittonicWesternWelshEarly formsCommon BrittonicOld WelshMiddle WelshWriting systemLatin (Welsh alphabet) Welsh BrailleOfficial statusOfficial language inWalesRecognised minority language in United Kingdom
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William The Conqueror
William I[a] (c. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][b] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke
Duke
of Normandy
Normandy
(as William II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy
Normandy
was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke
Duke
of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva
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Cumbric
Cumbric
Cumbric
was a variety of the Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
language spoken during the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
in the Hen Ogledd
Hen Ogledd
or "Old North" in what is now Northern England
Northern England
and southern Lowland Scotland.[2] It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. Place name evidence suggests Cumbric
Cumbric
may also have been spoken as far south as Pendle
Pendle
and the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales
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