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Lord Of Milan
The following is a list of rulers of Milan
Milan
from the 13th century to 1814, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by the Congress of Vienna.Contents1 Lordship of Milan
Milan
(1259–1395) 2 Duchy of Milan
Milan
(1395–1796)2.1 House of Visconti 2.2 House of Sforza 2.3 House of Valois-Orléans 2.4 House of Sforza 2.5 House of Valois-Angoulême 2.6 House of Sforza 2.7 House of Habsburg-Spain 2.8 House of Bourbon-Spain 2.9 House of Habsburg 2.10 House of Habsburg-Lorraine3 See also 4 BibliographyLordship of Milan
Milan
(1259–1395)[edit] Until 1259, Milan
Milan
was a free commune, in practice an oligarchy, that elected its own podestà. The Della Torre
Della Torre
family gained sustained power in 1240, when Pagano Della Torre
Della Torre
was elected podestà
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Milan
Milan
Milan
(/mɪˈlæn, -ˈlɑːn/;[3] Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard: Milan
Milan
[miˈlãː] (Milanese variant))[4][5] is the capital of
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Francesco II Sforza
Francesco II Sforza
Francesco II Sforza
(February 4, 1495 – October 24, 1535) was Duke of Milan
Milan
from 1521 until his death. He was the last member of the Sforza family
Sforza family
to rule Milan. He was the second son of Ludovico Sforza
Ludovico Sforza
and Beatrice d'Este. When Ludovico was ousted from Milan
Milan
in the course of the Italian Wars, he brought Francesco with him to the court of the Emperor Maximilian I, who had married a Sforza, Francesco's cousin Bianca Maria. Francesco was assigned to an ecclesiastical career. His father was imprisoned in Loches by Louis XII of France, and died in 1508, but when Charles V re-conquered Milan
Milan
from the French in 1521, Francesco was appointed its duke,[1] the last of the family to hold that title
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Wenceslaus IV Of Bohemia
Wenceslaus (also Wenceslas; Czech: Václav IV.; German: Wenzel, nicknamed der Faule ("the Idle");[1] 26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419) was, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1363 and by election, German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376. He was the third Bohemian and fourth German monarch of the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
dynasty. Wenceslaus was deposed in 1400 as King of the Romans, but continued to rule as Bohemian king until his death.Contents1 Biography1.1 Rule 1.2 King of Bohemia 1.3 Dethronement2 Personal life 3 Ancestors 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Wenceslaus was born in the Imperial city of Nuremberg, the son of Emperor Charles IV by his third wife Anna von Schweidnitz, a scion of the Silesian Piasts, and baptized at St. Sebaldus Church
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Filippo Maria Visconti
Filippo Maria Visconti
Filippo Maria Visconti
(3 September 1392 – 13 August 1447)[1] was the ruler of the Duchy of Milan
Milan
from 1412 to 1447.Contents1 Biography 2 Art 3 Ancestors 4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesBiography[edit]Gian Galeazzo Visconti, with his three sons, presents a model of the Certosa di Pavia
Certosa di Pavia
to the Virgin (Certosa di Pavia).Filippo Maria Visconti, who had become nominal ruler of Pavia
Pavia
in 1402, succeeded his assassinated brother Gian Maria Visconti
Gian Maria Visconti
as Duke of Milan
Milan
in 1412. They were the sons of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Gian Maria's predecessor, by his second wife, Caterina Visconti
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Golden Ambrosian Republic
The Golden Ambrosian Republic
Golden Ambrosian Republic
(Italian: Aurea Repubblica Ambrosiana; Lombard: Aurea Republega Ambrosiana; 1447–1450) was a short-lived government founded in Milan
Milan
by members of the University of Pavia
University of Pavia
with popular support
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Francesco Sforza
Francesco I Sforza
Sforza
(Italian pronunciation: [franˌtʃesko ˌpriːmo ˈsfɔrtsa]; 23 July 1401 – 8 March 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza
Sforza
dynasty in Milan, Italy, and was the fourth Duke of Milan
Milan
from 1450 until his death. He was the brother of Alessandro, whom he often fought alongside.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Duke of Milan2 Culture 3 Issue 4 Notes 5 SourcesBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Francesco Sforza
Sforza
was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, one of the seven illegitimate sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza
Muzio Sforza
and Lucia da Torsano. He spent his childhood in Tricarico
Tricarico
(in the modern Basilicata), the marquisate of which he was granted in 1412 by King Ladislaus of Naples
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Italian Wars
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t eThe Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars
Italian Wars
or the Great Wars of Italy
Italy
and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe
Western Europe
(France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Spanish: Carlos; German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Dutch: Karel; French: Charles, [a] 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia
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Imperial Vicar
An imperial vicar (German: Reichsvikar) was a prince charged with administering all or part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
on behalf of the Emperor. Later, an imperial vicar was invariably one of two princes charged by the Golden Bull
Golden Bull
with administering the Holy Roman Empire during an interregnum. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was an elective monarchy, not a hereditary one. When a King or Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
died, if a King of the Romans
King of the Romans
had not already been elected, there would be no new Emperor for a matter of several months until all the Electors, or their representatives, could assemble for a new Imperial election. During that time, Imperial institutions still required oversight. This was performed by two Imperial vicars
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Christina Of Denmark
Christina of Denmark
Denmark
(Danish: Christine af Danmark; November 1521 – 10 December 1590) was a Danish princess, the younger surviving daughter of King Christian II
Christian II
of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
and Isabella of Austria. She became the duchess-consort of Milan, then duchess-consort of Lorraine. She served as the regent of Lorraine from 1545 to 1552 during the minority of her son. She was also a claimant to the thrones of Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
in 1561-1590
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Philip II Of Spain
Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain[a] (1556–98), King of Portugal
King of Portugal
(1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I),[1] King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England
King of England
and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I
from 1554–58).[2] He was also Duke of Milan.[3] From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" ('"Philip the Prudent'"), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age
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War Of The Spanish Succession
The Grand Alliance Holy Roman Empire Austria  Prussia Spain
Spain
loyal to Charles Crown of Aragon Great Britain [a]  Dutch Republic  Portugal  SavoyBourbon France and Spain
Spain
 France P
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Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire
Empire
(Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919 (losing Hungary
Hungary
in 1867) created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire
Empire
and France
France
in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the second largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire
Empire
(621,538 square kilometres [239,977 sq mi]). Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until the latter's dissolution in 1806
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