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Longwave
In radio, LONGWAVE, LONG WAVE or LONG-WAVE, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium wave (MW), and short wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'. In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its precise meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 metres, i.e. frequencies up to 300 kilohertz (kHz) including the International Telecommunications Union\'s (ITU's) low frequency (LF) (30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF) (3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave band at 520 kHz
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Frankfurt Am Main, Germany
FRANKFURT, officially FRANKFURT AM MAIN (German pronunciation: ( listen )) is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse
Hesse
and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2015 population of 732,688 within its administrative boundaries, and 2.3 million in its urban area . The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region , which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany\'s second-largest metropolitan region after Rhine-Ruhr . Since the enlargement of the European Union
European Union
in 2013 , the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km (25 mi) to the east of Frankfurt's CBD, the Bankenviertel
Bankenviertel
. Frankfurt
Frankfurt
is culturally and ethnically diverse, with around half of the population, and a majority of young people, having a migration background
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Lintong
LINTONG DISTRICT (simplified Chinese : 临潼区; traditional Chinese : 臨潼區; pinyin : Líntóng Qū) is one of nine districts of Xi\'an , the capital of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, China. The Terracotta Army and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
was discovered in March 1974 near this district. The district borders the prefecture-level cities of Xianyang
Xianyang
to the northwest and Weinan
Weinan
to the east, Gaoling County to the northeast, Baqiao District to the southeast, Lianhu and Xincheng Districts to the south, and Chang\'an District to the southwest. Artifacts from the tomb of Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
, China's first emperor, can be viewed at the Emperor Qinshihuang's Mausoleum Site Museum (秦始皇帝陵博物院) in Lintong District
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Morse Code
MORSE CODE is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. It is named for Samuel F. B. Morse , an inventor of the telegraph. The International Morse Code encodes the ISO basic Latin alphabet , some extra Latin letters, the Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals (prosigns ) as standardized sequences of short and long signals called "dots" and "dashes", or "dits" and "dahs", as in amateur radio practice. Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages. Each Morse code
Morse code
symbol represents either a text character (letter or numeral) or a prosign and is represented by a unique sequence of dots and dashes
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Callsign
In broadcasting and radio communications , a CALL SIGN (also known as a CALL NAME or CALL LETTERS—and historically as a CALL SIGNAL—or abbreviated as a CALL) is a unique designation for a transmitter station . In North America, they are used for all FCC licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or even cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity. The use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations , there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram . In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose. This pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation; radio companies initially assigned two-letter identifiers to coastal stations and stations aboard ships at sea
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Kennelly–Heaviside Layer
The KENNELLY–HEAVISIDE LAYER, named after Arthur E. Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside
Oliver Heaviside
, also known as the E REGION or simply the HEAVISIDE LAYER, is a layer of ionised gas occurring between roughly 90–150 km (56–93 mi) above the ground — one of several layers in the Earth 's ionosphere . It reflects medium-frequency radio waves , and because of this reflection , radio waves can be propagated beyond the horizon . Propagation is affected by time of day. During the daytime the solar wind presses this layer closer to the Earth, thereby limiting how far it can reflect radio waves. Conversely, on the night (lee ) side of the Earth, the solar wind drags the ionosphere further away, thereby greatly increasing the range which radio waves can travel by reflection, called skywave . The extent of the effect is further influenced by the season , and the amount of sunspot activity
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F Region
The F REGION of the ionosphere is home to the F layer of ionization, also called the APPLETON–BARNETT LAYER, after the English physicist Edward Appleton and New Zealander Miles Barnett . As with other ionospheric sectors, 'layer' implies a concentration of plasma, while 'region' is the volume that contains the said layer. The F region contains ionized gases at a height of around 150–800 km above sea level, placing it in the Earth’s thermosphere , a hot region in the upper atmosphere , and also in the heterosphere , where chemical composition varies with height. Generally speaking, the F region has the highest concentration of free electrons and ions anywhere in the atmosphere. It may be thought of as comprising two layers, the F1-and F2-layers. The F-region is located directly above the E region (formerly the Kennelly-Heaviside layer) and below the protonosphere
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
, Earth's only natural satellite . Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year . During this time, Earth
Earth
rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Commonwealth Of Independent States
The COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES (CIS; Russian : Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, tr. Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG), also called the RUSSIAN COMMONWEALTH (to distinguish it from the English-speaking Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
), is a loose confederation of 9 member states and 2 associate members that are located in Eurasia
Eurasia
, formed during the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, and which were all former Soviet Republics . Georgia withdrew its membership in 2008, while the Baltic states
Baltic states
( Estonia
Estonia
, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
), which regard their membership in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as an illegal occupation, chose not to participate
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Part 15
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS , TITLE 47, PART 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions . It is a part of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), and regulates everything from spurious emissions to unlicensed low-power broadcasting . Nearly every electronics device sold inside the United States
United States
radiates unintentional emissions, and must be reviewed to comply with Part 15 before it can be advertised or sold in the US market
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Public Emergency Radio Of The United States
The PUBLIC EMERGENCY RADIO OF THE UNITED STATES was a communications system planned during the cold war era in the 1970s, to be activated in anticipation of a nuclear attack. The radio system was designed to broadcast on 167, 179 and 191 kHz in the long wave radio band . The distribution stations would be activated by two "control stations" at 61.15 kHz, in Ault, Colorado and Cambridge, Kansas
Cambridge, Kansas
. The system was not implemented. SEE ALSO * WGU-20 * HANDEL
HANDEL
* Four minute warning * Emergency Broadcast System
Emergency Broadcast System
* Wartime Broadcasting Service
Wartime Broadcasting Service
This article about a radio station in the United States is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a TRANSMITTER or RADIO TRANSMITTER is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna . The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current , which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting , transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio , such as cell phones , wireless computer networks , Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers , two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation , such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Submarine
A SUBMARINE (or simply SUB) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible , which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots , as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub . The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat; by naval tradition , submarines are usually referred to as "boats " rather than as "ships ", regardless of their size (boat is usually reserved for seagoing vessels of relatively small size). Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, and they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small
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Refraction
REFRACTION is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium . The phenomenon is explained by the conservation of energy and the conservation of momentum . Due to the change of medium, the phase velocity of the wave is changed but its frequency remains constant. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 0° from the normal. Refraction
Refraction
of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth
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