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Loeffler's Syndrome
Löffler's syndrome
Löffler's syndrome
or Loeffler's syndrome is a disease in which eosinophils accumulate in the lung in response to a parasitic infection. It was first described in 1932 by Wilhelm Löffler[1] in cases of eosinophilic pneumonia caused by the parasites Ascaris lumbricoides,[2] Strongyloides stercoralis
Strongyloides stercoralis
and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale
Ancylostoma duodenale
and Necator americanus. Although Löffler only described eosinophilic pneumonia in the context of infection, many authors give the term "Löffler's syndrome" to any form of acute onset pulmonary eosinophilia no matter what the underlying cause. If the cause is unknown, it is specified and called "simple pulmonary eosinophilia". Cardiac damage caused by the damaging effects of eosinophil granule proteins (ex
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Eosinophil
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates.[citation needed] Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma
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Allergic Rhinitis
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food.[10] Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions.[3] Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibod
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 460–519
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Upper respiratory tract infections (URI or URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx
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Common Cold
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.[7] The throat, sinuses, and larynx may also be affected.[5] Signs and symptoms may appear less than two days after exposure to the virus.[5] These may include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever.[2][3] People usually recover in seven to ten days,[2] but some symptoms may last up to three weeks.[6] Occasionally those with other health problems may develop pneumonia.[2] Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in causing the common cold, with rhinoviruses being the most common.[11] They spread through the air during close contact with infected people or indirectly through contact with objects in the environment, followed by transfer to the mouth or nose.[2] Risk factors include going to daycare, not sleeping well, and psychological stress.[5] The symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rat
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Human Head
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body. It supports the face and is maintained by the skull, which itself encloses the brain.Contents1 Structure1.1 Blood supply 1.2 Nerve supply2 Function 3 Society and culture3.1 Clothing 3.2 Anthropometry4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingStructure[edit] Cryosection
Cryosection
through the male headAnatomy of the human headThe human head consists of a fleshy outer portion surrounding the bony skull, within which sits the brain. The head rests on the neck, and is provided bony support for movement by the seven cervical vertebrae. The face is the anterior part of the head, containing the sensory organs the eyes, nose and mouth. The cheeks, on either side of the mouth, provide a fleshy border to the oral cavity. To either side of the head sit the ears. Blood supply[edit] The head receives blood supply through the internal and external carotid arteries
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Paranasal Sinuses
Paranasal sinuses
Paranasal sinuses
are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.[1] The maxillary sinuses are located under the eyes; the frontal sinuses are above the eyes; the ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes and the sphenoidal sinuses are behind the eyes. The sinuses are named for the facial bones in which they are located.Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Function 3 Clinical significance3.1 Inflammation 3.2 Cancer4 History4.1 Etymology5 Other animals 6 Additional images 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksStructure[edit] Humans possess four paired paranasal sinuses, divided into subgroups that are named according to the bones within which the sinuses lie:The maxillary sinuses, the largest of the paranasal sinuses, are under the eyes, in the maxillary bones (open in the back of the semilunar hiatus of the nose)
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Sinusitis
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.[1] Common symptoms include thick nasal mucus, a plugged nose, and pain in the face.[1] Other signs and symptoms may include fever, headaches, poor sense of smell, sore throat, and cough.[2][3] The cough is often worse at night.[3] Serious complications are rare.[3] It is defined as acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) if it lasts less than 4 weeks, and as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) if it lasts for more than 12 weeks.[1] Sinusitis
Sinusitis
can be caused by infection, allergies, air pollution, or structural problems in the nose.[2]
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Human Nose
The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the nasal bones and the nasal cartilages, including the septal cartilage (which separates the nostrils) and the upper and lower lateral cartilages. On average the nose of a male is larger than that of a female.[1] The nose has an area of specialised cells which are responsible for smelling (part of the olfactory system). Another function of the nose is the conditioning of inhaled air, warming it and making it more humid. Hairs inside the nose prevent large particles from entering the lungs. Sneezing
Sneezing
is usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa, but can more rarely be caused by sudden exposure to bright light (called the photic sneeze reflex) or touching the external auditory canal
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Rhinitis
Rhinitis, also known as coryza,[3] is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. Common symptoms are a stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing, and post-nasal drip.[4] The inflammation is caused by viruses, bacteria, irritants or allergens. The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis,[5] which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and dander.[6] Allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis
may cause additional symptoms, such as sneezing and nasal itching, coughing, headache,[7] fatigue, malaise, and cognitive impairment.[8][9][10] The allergens may also affect the eyes, causing watery, reddened, or itchy eyes and puffiness around the eyes.[7] The inflammation results in the generation of large amounts of mucus, commonly producing a runny nose, as well as a stuffy nose and post-nasal drip
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Nonallergic Rhinitis
Nonallergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inner part of the nose that is not caused by an allergy. Nonallergic rhinitis involves symptoms including chronic sneezing or having a congested, drippy nose without an identified allergic reaction.[1] Other common terms for nonallergic rhinitis are vasomotor rhinitis[2][3] and perennial rhinitis. The prevalence of nonallergic rhinitis in otolaryngology is 40%. Allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis
is more common than nonallergic rhinitis; however, both conditions have similar presentation, manifestation and treatment
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Chronic Atrophic Rhinitis
Chronic atrophic rhinitis is a chronic inflammation of nose characterised by atrophy of nasal mucosa, including the glands, turbinate bones and the nerve elements supplying the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis may be primary and secondary
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Nasal Polyp
Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses.[1] Symptoms include trouble breathing through the nose, loss of smell, decreased taste, post nasal drip, and a runny nose.[1] The growths are sac-like, movable, and nontender, though face pain may occasionally occur.[1] They typically occur in both nostrils in those who are affected.[1] Complications may include sinusitis and broadening of the nose.[2] The exact cause is unclear.[1] They may be related to chronic inflammation of the lining of the sinuses.[1] They occur more commonly among people who have allergies, cystic fibrosis, aspirin sensitivity, or certain infections.[1] The polyp itself represents an overgrowth of the mucous membranes.[1] Diagnosis may occur by looking up the nose.[1] A CT scan
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Respiratory Disease
Respiratory disease
Respiratory disease
is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute asthma and lung cancer.[1] The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology
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Rhinorrhea
Rhinorrhea
Rhinorrhea
or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid. The condition, commonly known as a runny nose, occurs relatively frequently. Rhinorrhea
Rhinorrhea
is a common symptom of allergies (hay fever) or certain diseases, such as the common cold
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