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Loan
In finance, a loan is the lending of money from one individual, organization or entity to another individual, organization or entity. A loan is a debt provided by an organization or individual to another entity at an interest rate, and evidenced by a promissory note which specifies, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset(s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower. In a loan, the borrower initially receives or borrows an amount of money, called the principal, from the lender, and is obligated to pay back or repay an equal amount of money to the lender at a later time. The loan is generally provided at a cost, referred to as interest on the debt, which provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan
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Call Option
A call option, often simply labeled a "call", is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the seller of this type of option.[1] The buyer of the call option has the right, but not the obligation, to buy an agreed quantity of a particular commodity or financial instrument (the underlying) from the seller of the option at a certain time (the expiration date) for a certain price (the strike price). The seller (or "writer") is obligated to sell the commodity or financial instrument to the buyer if the buyer so decides. The buyer pays a fee (called a premium) for this right. The term "call" comes from the fact that the owner has the right to "call the stock away" from the seller.Contents1 Price of options 2 Call option
Call option
profit / loss chart 3 Options 4 See also 5 ReferencesPrice of options[edit] Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time
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Financial Market Participants
There are two basic financial market participant categories[citation needed], Investor vs. Speculator and Institutional vs. Retail[citation needed]. Action in financial markets by central banks is usually regarded as intervention rather than participation.Contents1 Supply side vs. demand side 2 Investor vs. Speculator2.1 Investor 2.2 Speculation3 Institutional vs. Retail3.1 Institutional investor 3.2 Retail
Retail
investor4 See also 5 ReferencesSupply side vs. demand side[edit] A market participant may either be coming from the Supply Side, hence supplying excess money (in the form of investments) in favor of the demand side; or coming from the Demand Side, hence demanding excess money (in the form of borrowed equity) in favor of the Supply Side. This equation originated from Keynesian Advocates
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Put Option
In finance, a put or put option is a stock market device which gives the owner of a put the right, but not the obligation, to sell an asset (the underlying), at a specified price (the strike), by a predetermined date (the expiry or maturity) to a given party (the seller of the put)
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Accounting
Accounting
Accounting
or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities[1][2] such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli
Luca Pacioli
in 1494.[3] Accounting, which has been called the "language of business",[4] measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators.[5] Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants
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Audit
An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law. Auditing has become such a ubiquitous phenomenon in the corporate and the public sector that academics started identifying an " Audit
Audit
Society".[1] The auditor perceives and recognises the propositions before them for examination, obtains evidence, evaluates the same and formulates an opinion on the basis of his judgement which is communicated through their audit report.[2] Any subject matter may be audited
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Mergers And Acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions
(M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow, shrink, and change the nature of their business or competitive position. From a legal point of view, a merger is a legal consolidation of two entities into one entity, whereas an acquisition occurs when one entity takes ownership of another entity's stock, equity interests or assets. From a commercial and economic point of view, both types of transactions generally result in the consolidation of assets and liabilities under one entity, and the distinction between a "merger" and an "acquisition" is less clear
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Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting, and investment appraisal, is the planning process used to determine whether an organization's long term investments such as new machinery, replacement of machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth the funding of cash through the firm's capitalization structure (debt, equity or retained earnings). It is the process of allocating resources for major capital, or investment, expenditures.[1] One of the primary goals of capital budgeting investments is to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders. Many formal methods are used in capital budgeting, including the techniques such asAccounting rate of return Average accounting return Payback period Net present value Profitability index Internal rate of return Modified internal rate of return Equivalent annual cost Real options valuationThese methods use the incremental cash flows from each potential investment, or project
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Employment Contract
An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The contract is between an "employee" and an "employer". It has arisen out of the old master-servant law, used before the 20th century. But generally, the contract of employment denotes a relationship of economic dependence and social subordination. In the words of the controversial labour lawyer Sir Otto Kahn-Freund,"the relation between an employer and an isolated employee or worker is typically a relation between a bearer of power and one who is not a bearer of power. In its inception it is an act of submission, in its operation it is a condition of subordination, however much the submission and the subordination may be concealed by the indispensable figment of the legal mind known as the 'contract of employment'. The main object of labour law has been, and..
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Speculation
Speculation
Speculation
is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date. In finance, speculation is also the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable financial instrument—rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, dividends, or interest. Many speculators pay little attention to the fundamental value of a security and instead focus purely on price movements
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Retail
Retail
Retail
is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping
Shopping
generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail
Retail
markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity
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Institutional Investor
An institutional investor is an entity which pools money to purchase securities, real property, and other investment assets or originate loans. Institutional investors include banks, insurance companies, pensions, hedge funds, REITs, investment advisors, endowments, and mutual funds. Operating companies which invest excess capital in these types of assets may also be included in the term
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Investor
An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.[1] Types of investments include: equity, debt securities, real estate, currency, commodity, token, derivatives such as put and call options, futures, forwards, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors
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Stock Market
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Examples of the latter include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock
Stock
exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.g. corporate bonds and convertible bonds.Contents1 Size of the market 2 Stock
Stock
exchange 3 Trade 4 Market participant4.1 Trends in market participation4.1.1 Indirect vs
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Exotic Option
In finance, an exotic option is an option which has features making it more complex than commonly traded vanilla options. Like the more general exotic derivatives they may have several triggers relating to determination of payoff. An exotic option may also include non-standard underlying instrument, developed for a particular client or for a particular market
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Spot Market
The spot market or cash market is a public financial market in which financial instruments or commodities are traded for immediate delivery. It contrasts with a futures market, in which delivery is due at a later date. In a spot market, settlement normally happens in T+2 working days, i.e., delivery of cash and commodity must be done after two working days of the trade date. A spot market can be through an exchange or over-the-counter (OTC). Spot markets can operate wherever the infrastructure exists to conduct the transaction.Contents1 Exchange 2 OTC 3 Examples3.1 Energy Spot4 See also 5 ReferencesExchange[edit] Securities (i.e. financial instruments) and commodities are traded on an exchange using, making, and possibly changing the current market price. OTC[edit] In the over the counter market, trades are based on contracts made directly between two parties, and not subject to the rules of an exchange
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