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Lizard
Sauria
Sauria
Macartney , 1802 LIZARDS are a widespread group of squamate reptiles , with over 6,000 species , ranging across all continents except Antarctica
Antarctica
, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 m long Komodo dragon
Komodo dragon
. Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless, and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide
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Uroplatus Fimbriatus
Stellio fimbriatus Schneider, 1797 UROPLATUS FIMBRIATUS (GIANT LEAF-TAILED GECKO) is a gecko endemic to Madagascar
Madagascar
. It is found in eastern Madagascar
Madagascar
and on the islands Nosy Bohara and Nosy Mangabe . These geckos live in tropical rain forests. They reach a total length of 330 mm. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Threats * 4 Gallery * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe generic name, Uroplatus , is a Latinization of two Greek words: "ourá" (οὐρά) meaning "tail" and "platys" (πλατύς) meaning "flat". Its specific name fimbriatus is the Latin
Latin
word for "fringed" based upon the gecko's unique appearance of fringed skin. DESCRIPTIONIt is a large nocturnal gecko. Because the eyes are extremely sensitive to light, 350 times more sensitive than the human eye, the species is able to see in colors even at night
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Territory (animal)
In ethology , TERRITORY is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species). Animals that defend territories in this way are referred to as TERRITORIAL. Territoriality is only shown by a minority of species. More commonly, an individual or a group of animals has an area that it habitually uses but does not necessarily defend; this is called the home range . The home ranges of different groups of animals often overlap, or in the overlap areas, the groups tend to avoid each other rather than seeking to expel each other. Within the home range there may be a core area that no other individual group uses, but, again, this is as a result of avoidance
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Tiliqua Scincoides
3, see text TILIQUA SCINCOIDES (COMMON BLUE-TONGUED SKINK, COMMON BLUETONGUE ) is a species of skink in the genus Tiliqua
Tiliqua
. It is native to Australia as well as to the Tanimbar and Babar Islands
Babar Islands
in the Maluku Province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. SUBSPECIESThere are three subspecies : * Tiliqua
Tiliqua
scincoides scincoides – eastern blue-tongued skink (southern/eastern Australia) * Tiliqua
Tiliqua
scincoides intermedia – northern blue-tongued skink (northern Australia) * Tiliqua
Tiliqua
scincoides chimaerea – Tanimbar blue-tongued skink (Maluku Province, Indonesia)DESCRIPTIONThis is a large terrestrial lizard measuring up to 40 centimetres long and 700 grams in mass. It has a stout body and short legs. It is variable in color but generally has a banded pattern
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Late Triassic
The LATE TRIASSIC is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic
Triassic
Period in the geologic timescale . The Triassic-Jurassic extinction event began during this epoch and is one of the five major mass extinction events of the Earth. The corresponding series is known as the UPPER TRIASSIC. In Europe the epoch was called the Keuper , after a German lithostratigraphic group (a sequence of rock strata ) that has a roughly corresponding age. The Late Triassic
Triassic
spans the time between 237 Ma and 201.3 Ma (million years ago). The Late Triassic
Triassic
is divided into the Carnian , Norian and Rhaetian ages . Many of the first dinosaurs evolved during the Late Triassic, including Plateosaurus , Coelophysis , and Eoraptor
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Water Buffalo
The WATER BUFFALO or DOMESTIC ASIAN WATER BUFFALO is a large bovid originating in South Asia
South Asia
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and China
China
. Today, it is also found in Europe
Europe
, Australia
Australia
, South America
South America
and some African countries. The wild water buffalo ( Bubalus
Bubalus
arnee arnee) native to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is considered a different species , but most likely represents the ancestor of the domestic water buffalo
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Island
An ISLAND or ISLE is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water . Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets , skerries , cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait , and a small island off the coast may be called a holm . A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago , e.g. the Philippines
Philippines
. An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore
Singapore
and its causeway , and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde . Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island
Coney Island
and Coronado Island
Island
, though these are strictly tied islands
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Albert C. L. G. Günther
ALBERT KARL LUDWIG GOTTHILF GüNTHER FRS , also ALBERT CHARLES LEWIS GOTTHILF GüNTHER (3 October 1830 – 1 February 1914), was a German-born British zoologist , ichthyologist , and herpetologist . Günther is currently ranked the second-most productive reptile taxonomist (after George Albert Boulenger ) with more than 340 reptile species described. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Royal Society * 3 Family * 4 Selected publications * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREERGünther was born in Esslingen in Swabia
Swabia
( Württemberg
Württemberg
). His father was a Stiftungs-Commissar in Esslingen and his mother was Eleonora Nagel. He initially schooled at the Stuttgart Gymnasium. His family wished him to train for the ministry of the Lutheran Church for which he moved to the University of Tübingen
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James Macartney (anatomist)
JAMES MACARTNEY (born 8 March 1770 in Armagh
Armagh
, died 6 March 1843 in Dublin
Dublin
) was an anatomist . He began life as an Irish volunteer in 1780, and was afterwards educated at the endowed classical school at Armagh, and then at a private school. He was associated for a time with the Sheares brothers and Lord Edward Fitzgerald
Lord Edward Fitzgerald
, the United Irishmen but, being dissatisfied with their programme, he cut himself adrift and began to study medicine. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Writings * 3 Bibliography * 4 References BIOGRAPHYHe apprenticed himself to William Hartigan (1756?–1812) on 10 Feb. 1793, his master being president of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland in 1797
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Antarctica
ANTARCTICA (UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/ , US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen )) is Earth
Earth
's southernmost continent . It contains the geographic South Pole
South Pole
and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle , and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean . At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica
Antarctica
is nearly twice the size of Australia
Australia
. About 98% of Antarctica
Antarctica
is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula
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Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenidae Bipedidae
Bipedidae
Blanidae Cadeidae Rhineuridae
Rhineuridae
Trogonophidae black: range of AmphisbaeniaAMPHISBAENIA (called AMPHISBAENIANS or WORM LIZARDS) is a group of usually legless squamates , comprising over 180 extant species. Amphisbaenians are characterized by their long bodies, the reduction or loss of the limbs, and rudimentary eyes. As many species have a pink body and scales arranged in rings, they have a superficial resemblance to earthworms . While the genus Bipes retains forelimbs, all other genera are limbless. Although superficially similar to the snakes and Dibamidae , recent phylogenetic studies suggest that they are most closely related to the Lacertidae . Amphisbaenians are widely distributed, occurring in North America, Europe, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) (informally UPPER TERTIARY or LATE TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene
Pliocene
. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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