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Lizard
Sauria
Sauria
Macartney, 1802Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species,[1] ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenia
which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless, and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide
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Water Buffalo
The water buffalo ( Bubalus
Bubalus
bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Today, it is also found in Europe, Australia, North America, South America and some African countries.[1] The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) native to Southeast Asia
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Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenidae Bipedidae Blanidae Cadeidae Rhineuridae Trogonophidaeblack: range of Amphisbaenia Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenia
(called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species. Amphisbaenians are characterized by their long bodies, the reduction or loss of the limbs, and rudimentary eyes. As many species have a pink body and scales arranged in rings, they have a superficial resemblance to earthworms. While the genus Bipes retains forelimbs, all other genera are limbless. Although superficially similar to the snakes and Dibamidae, recent phylogenetic studies suggest that they are most closely related to the Lacertidae. Amphisbaenians are widely distributed, occurring in North America, Europe, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean
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Albert C. L. G. Günther
Albert Karl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther FRS, also Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Günther (3 October 1830 – 1 February 1914), was a German-born British zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. Günther is currently ranked the second-most productive reptile taxonomist (after George Albert Boulenger) with more than 340 reptile species described.[1][2]Contents1 Early life and career 2 Royal Society 3 Family 4 Selected publications 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Günther was born in Esslingen in Swabia
Swabia
(Württemberg). His father was a Stiftungs-Commissar in Esslingen and his mother was Eleonora Nagel. He initially schooled at the Stuttgart Gymnasium. His family wished him to train for the ministry of the Lutheran Church for which he moved to the University of Tübingen. A brother shifted from theology to medicine, and he, too, turned to science and medicine at Tübingen
Tübingen
in 1852
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James Macartney (anatomist)
James Macartney (born 8 March 1770 in Armagh, died 6 March 1843 in Dublin) was an anatomist. He began life as an Irish volunteer in 1780, and was afterwards educated at the endowed classical school at Armagh, and then at a private school. He was associated for a time with the Sheares brothers and Lord Edward Fitzgerald, the United Irishmen
United Irishmen
but, being dissatisfied with their programme, he cut himself adrift and began to study medicine.Contents1 Biography 2 Writings 3 Bibliography 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] He apprenticed himself to William Hartigan (1756?–1812) on 10 Feb. 1793, his master being president of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland in 1797
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
(UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/, US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole
South Pole
and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia
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Early Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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Animalia
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Biological Classification
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Island
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.[2] Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines, for example. An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore
Singapore
and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island
Coney Island
and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands
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Uroplatus Fimbriatus
Stellio fimbriatus Schneider, 1797Uroplatus fimbriatus (giant leaf-tailed gecko) is a gecko endemic to Madagascar. It is found in eastern Madagascar and on the islands Nosy Bohara and Nosy Mangabe. These geckos live in tropical rain forests. They reach a total length of 330 mm.Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Threats 4 Gallery 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The generic name, Uroplatus, is a Latinization of two Greek words: "ourá" (οὐρά) meaning "tail" and "platys" (πλατύς) meaning "flat". Its specific name fimbriatus is the Latin word for "fringed" based upon the gecko's unique appearance of fringed skin. Description[edit] It is a large nocturnal gecko.[2] Because the eyes are extremely sensitive to light, 350 times more sensitive than the human eye, the species is able to see in colors even at night.[3] By day it plasters itself to a small tree trunk and rests head down
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Tiliqua Scincoides
3, see textTiliqua scincoides (Common blue-tongued skink,[1] common bluetongue[2]) is a species of skink in the genus Tiliqua. It is native to Australia as well as to the Tanimbar and Babar Islands in the Maluku Province of Indonesia.[2] Subspecies[edit] There are three subspecies:[2]Tiliqua scincoides scincoides – eastern blue-tongued skink (southern/eastern Australia) Tiliqua scincoides intermedia – northern blue-tongued skink (northern Australia) Tiliqua scincoides chimaerea – Tanimbar blue-tongued skink (Maluku Province, Indonesia)Description[edit] This is a large terrestrial lizard measuring up to 40 centimetres long and 700 grams in mass. It has a stout body and short legs.[1] It is variable in color but generally has a banded pattern. The tongue is blue-violet[3] to cobalt blue in color.[4] This lizard is diurnal, active during the day
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Territory (animal)
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species). Animals that defend territories in this way are referred to as territorial. Territoriality is only shown by a minority of species. More commonly, an individual or a group of animals has an area that it habitually uses but does not necessarily defend; this is called the home range. The home ranges of different groups of animals often overlap, or in the overlap areas, the groups tend to avoid each other rather than seeking to expel each other
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Late Triassic
The Late Triassic
Triassic
is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic
Triassic
Period in the geologic timescale. The Triassic-Jurassic extinction event began during this epoch and is one of the five major mass extinction events of the Earth. The corresponding series is known as the Upper Triassic. In Europe the epoch was called the Keuper, after a German lithostratigraphic group (a sequence of rock strata) that has a roughly corresponding age. The Late Triassic
Triassic
spans the time between 237 Ma and 201.3 Ma (million years ago)
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Neogene
The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period
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