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Livingston Island
Livingston Island
Island
(historical Russian name Smolensk, 62°36′S 60°30′W / 62.600°S 60.500°W / -62.600; -60.500) is an Antarctic
Antarctic
island in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica lying between Greenwich Island
Island
and Snow Islands
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Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
(UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/, US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole
South Pole
and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia
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Island
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.[2] Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines, for example. An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore
Singapore
and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island
Coney Island
and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands
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South Georgia Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote and inhospitable collection of islands, consisting of South Georgia and a chain of smaller islands known as the South Sandwich Islands
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Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(/ˈfɔːlklənd/; Spanish: Islas Malvinas, pronounced [ˈislas malˈβinas]) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles (483 kilometres) east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles (12,000 square kilometres), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland
West Falkland
and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The Falkland Islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans
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Diego Ramirez Islands
The Diego Ramírez Islands
Diego Ramírez Islands
(Spanish: Islas Diego Ramírez) are a small group of islands located in the southernmost extreme of Chile. Geography[edit] The islands lie about 105 km (65 mi) west-southwest of Cape Horn and 93 km (58 mi) south-southeast of Ildefonso Islands, stretching 8 km (5 mi) north-south. They are divided into a smaller northern group with six islets, and a larger southern group, separated by a passage 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The two largest islands, Isla Bartolomé
Isla Bartolomé
and Isla Gonzalo, both lie in the southern group
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Cape Horn
Coordinates: 55°58′48″S 67°17′21″W / 55.98000°S 67.28917°W / -55.98000; -67.28917Cape HornCabo de HornosGeographyCape HornLocation of the Cape Horn
Cape Horn
in continental ChileCountry  ChileRegion Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena RegionSubregion Antártica Chilena Province Cape Horn
Cape Horn
(Spanish: Cabo de Hornos, pronounced [ˈkaβo ðe ˈoɾnos]) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island
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Antarctic Peninsula
The Antarctic Peninsula
Peninsula
is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere. At the surface, it is the biggest, most prominent peninsula in Antarctica
Antarctica
as it extends 1,300 km (810 miles) from a line between Cape Adams (Weddell Sea) and a point on the mainland south of Eklund Islands. Beneath the ice sheet which covers it, the Antarctic Peninsula
Peninsula
consists of a string of bedrock islands; these are separated by deep channels whose bottoms lie at depths considerably below current sea level
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Caldera
A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Port Foster
Port Foster is one of the safest harbours in Antarctica, located in Deception Island in the South Shetland Islands. History[edit] The harbour was known to sealers as early as 1820, and in its early history was called Port Williams, after Capt. William Smith's brig, the Williams, or Yankee Harbor, because of the number of American sealers who harboured there. A few years later it was named Port Foster after Henry Foster, commander of the HMS Chanticleer, who made pendulum and magnetic observations in this harbour in 1829. The latter name has become established by usage, while the former have remained for other features in the same archipelago — Williams Point and Yankee Harbor. Description[edit] The center of Deception Island is a caldera, formed by a gigantic volcanic eruption and later flooded. This has created the 10 by 7 km (6.2 by 4.3 mi) basin-like harbour of Port Foster
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Western Antarctica
West Antarctica, or Lesser Antarctica, one of the two major regions of Antarctica, is the part of that continent that lies within the Western Hemisphere, and includes the Antarctic Peninsula. It is separated from East Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains and is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. It lies between the Ross Sea (partly covered by the Ross Ice Shelf), and the Weddell Sea (largely covered by the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf). It may be considered[by whom?] a giant peninsula stretching from the South Pole towards the tip of South America. West Antarctica is largely covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, but there have been signs that climate change is having some effect and that this ice sheet may have started to shrink slightly. The coasts of the Antarctic Peninsula are the only parts of West Antarctica that become (in summer) ice-free. These constitute the Marielandia Antarctic tundra and have the warmest climate in Antarctica
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Antarctic
The Antarctic
Antarctic
(US English /æntˈɑːrktɪk/, UK English /ænˈtɑːrktɪk/ or /æntˈɑːrtɪk/ and /ænˈtɑːrtɪk/ or /ænˈɑːrtɪk/)[Note 1] is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic
Arctic
region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
and the island territories located on the Antarctic
Antarctic
Plate. The Antarctic
Antarctic
region include the ice shelves, waters, and island territories in the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
situated south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence, a zone approximately 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 mi) wide varying in latitude seasonally.[4] The region covers some 20 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5 percent (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Antarctic Treaty System
The Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica
Antarctica
is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 53 parties.[2] The treaty sets aside Antarctica
Antarctica
as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation and bans military activity on the continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War
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