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Liu Zhiyuan
Liu
Liu
Zhiyuan (劉知遠) (March 4, 895 – March 10, 948), later changed to Liu
Liu
Gao (劉暠), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Han ((後)漢高祖), was the ethnically- Shatuo
Shatuo
founder of the Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It, if the subsequent Northern Han is not considered part of its history, was also one of the shortest-lived states in Chinese history, lasting only three years.Contents1 Background 2 During Jin and Later Tang 3 During Later Jin3.1 During Shi Jingtang's reign 3.2 During Shi Chonggui's reign4 During Liao occupation of central China 5 Reign as emperor of Later Han5.1 March to Kaifeng 5.2 Reign at Kaifeng6 Personal information 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] Liu
Liu
Zhiyuan was born in 895, during the reign of Emperor Zhaozong of Tang, at Taiyuan
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Chinese Surname
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
([ʂɨ̌.tɕjá.ʈʂwáŋ]; Chinese: 石家庄) is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei
Hebei
Province.[1] Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about 263 kilometres (163 mi) southwest of Beijing,[2] and it administers eight districts, two county-level cities, and 12 counties. As of 2015 it had a total population of 10,701,600[3] with 4,303,700 in the central (or metro) area comprising the seven districts and the county of Zhengding
Zhengding
largely conurbated with the Shijiazhuang metropolitan area as urbanization continues to proliferate.[4] Shijiazhuang's total population ranked twelfth in mainland China.[5] Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
experienced dramatic growth after the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949
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Jin (Later Tang Precursor)
Jin (晉), also known as Hedong (河東) in historiography, was an early state of the imperial Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period from 907 to 923, and the predecessor of the Later Tang
Later Tang
dynasty (923–937). Its rulers were the Shatuo
Shatuo
warlords Li Keyong
Li Keyong
and Li Cunxu (Li Keyong's son). History[edit] The Jin rulers Li Keyong
Li Keyong
and Li Keyong's son Li Cunxu, of Shatuo extraction, claimed to be the rightful subjects of the defunct Tang Dynasty (618–907), in a struggle against the usurper state of the Later Liang Dynasty. At the time of the Tang Dynasty's fall in 907, the Jin state consisted of most, but not all, of modern Shanxi, and eventually expanded to cover all of the territory north of the Yellow River
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Puyang
Puyang
Puyang
is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Henan
Henan
province, People's Republic of China
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Yellow River
The Yellow River
River
or Huang He ( listen) is the third longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze
Yangtze
River
River
and Yenisei River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi).[1] Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai
Qinghai
province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
near the city of Dongying in Shandong
Shandong
province. The Yellow River
River
basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers (290,560 sq mi). Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history
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Later Tang
Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.[1] The first three of Later Tang's four emperors were ethnically sinicized Shatuo.[2] The name Tang was used to legitimize itself as the restorer of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907)
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Zhu Hongzhao
Zhu Hongzhao (朱弘昭) (d. May 14, 934[1][2]) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
state Later Tang
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Feng Yun (Later Tang)
Feng Yun (馮贇) (d. May 14, 934?[1][2][3]) was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
state known as the Later Tang, serving both as chancellor and chief of staff (Shumishi) during the reigns of its second emperor Li Siyuan and Li Siyuan's son and successor Li Conghou.Contents1 Background 2 During Li Siyuan's reign 3 During Li Conghou's reign 4 Notes and referencesBackground[edit] It is not known when Feng Yun was born, but it is known that he was from Taiyuan. All that was recorded in history about his origins was that his father Feng Zhang — given variously as 馮璋[4] or 馮章[5] — was the doorkeeper for Li Siyuan, the future Later Tang emperor. In Feng Yun's childhood, he was understanding and intelligent, and Li Siyuan liked him greatly
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Baoji
 Baoji (help·info) (simplified Chinese: 宝鸡; traditional Chinese: 寶雞; pinyin: Bǎojī) is a prefecture-level city in western Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, People's Republic of China.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Ancient trackways 4 Administrative divisions 5 Climate 6 Economy6.1 Industrial Zone7 Military 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksGeography[edit] The prefecture-level city of Baoji
Baoji
has a population of 3,716,731 according to the 2010 Chinese census, inhabiting an area of 18,172 km2 (7,016 sq mi). The city itself has a population of approximately 800,000. Surrounded on three sides by hills, Baoji
Baoji
is in a valley opening out to the east. Its location is strategic, controlling a pass on the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
between the Wei River valley and the Jialing River
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Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Shaanxi
(Chinese: 陕西; pinyin: Shǎnxī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan
Henan
(E), Hubei
Hubei
(SE), Chongqing
Chongqing
(S), Sichuan
Sichuan
(SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia
Ningxia
(NW), and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
(N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an
Xi'an
– which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao
Fenghao
and Chang'an
Chang'an
– is the provincial capital
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Hebei
Baoding
Baoding
(1928-58, 1966) Tianjin
Tianjin
(1958-65)
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Emperor Ai Of Tang
Emperor Ai of Tang (27 October 892–26 March 908), also known as Emperor Zhaoxuan (昭宣帝), born Li Zuo, later known as Li Zhu (Chinese: 李柷), was the last emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He reigned—as but a puppet ruler—from 904 to 907. Emperor Ai was the son of Emperor Zhaozong. Emperor Ai ascended the throne at the age of 11 after his father, the Emperor Zhaozong, was assassinated on the orders of the paramount warlord Zhu Quanzhong in 904, and while Emperor Ai reigned, the Tang court, then at Luoyang, was under the control of officials Zhu put in charge. In 905, under the instigation of his associates Liu Can and Li Zhen, Zhu had Emperor Ai issue an edict summoning some 30 senior aristocrats at Baima Station (白馬驛, in modern Anyang, Henan), near the Yellow River; the aristocrats were thereafter ordered to commit suicide, and their bodies were thrown into the Yellow River. He could do nothing to stop Zhu from murdering his brothers and mother in the same year
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Fan Yanguang
Fan Yanguang (范延光) (died September 30, 940[1]), courtesy name Zihuan (子環) (per the History of the Five Dynasties)[2] or Zigui (子瓌) (per the New History of the Five Dynasties),[3] formally the Prince of Dongping (東平王), was a general from the state of Later Tang and Later Jin during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He was a close associate of the Later Tang's second emperor Li Siyuan, serving three terms as Li Siyuan's chief of staff (Shumishi), and subsequently continued to serve as a general. After the Later Tang's final emperor Li Congke (Li Siyuan's adoptive son) was overthrown by Li Siyuan's son-in-law Shi Jingtang, who founded Later Jin, Fan initially formally submitted, but later rebelled against Shi. His rebellion, however, was not successful, and after Shi promised to spare him, he surrendered
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Handan
Handan
Handan
is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei
Hebei
province, China. It borders Xingtai
Xingtai
on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi
Shanxi
on the west, Henan
Henan
on the south and Shandong
Shandong
on the east
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Wang Sitong
Wang Sitong (王思同) (892[1][2]-May 9, 934[3][4]) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin. In 934, when Li Congke, the adoptive brother of then-reigning emperor Li Conghou, rebelled against Li Conghou, Wang was put in command of the army against Li Congke, but was soon defeated and executed without Li Congke's approval.Contents1 Background 2 During Jin 3 During Later Tang3.1 During Li Cunxu's reign as emperor 3.2 During Li Siyuan's reign 3.3 During Li Conghou's reign4 Notes and referencesBackground[edit] Wang Sitong was born in 892, during the reign of Emperor Zhaozong of Tang
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