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Lithuanian Grand Marshal
Marszałek (English: Marshal, Belarusian: Маршалак) was one of the highest officials in the Polish royal court since the 13th century and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
since the 15th century. He was the oldest-ranking of all court officials and was considered the most important advisor to the King of Poland.History[edit] The term marszałek, derived from Old German marh-skalk or horse-servant came to Polish language in the 13th century from Bohemia. Initially it retained its original meaning and was used to denote the stable-keeper on various courts of princes, most notably in Silesia. However, soon the term evolved and started denoting one of the functions at the court
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Court-martial
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment. In addition, courts-martial may be used to try prisoners of war for war crimes. The Geneva Convention requires that POWs who are on trial for war crimes be subject to the same procedures as would be the holding military's own forces. Finally, courts-martial can be convened for other purposes, such as dealing with violations of martial law, and can involve civilian defendants.[1][2] Most navies have a standard court-martial which convenes whenever a ship is lost; this does not presume that the captain is suspected of wrongdoing, but merely that the circumstances surrounding the loss of the ship be made part of the official record
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Crown Of The Kingdom Of Poland
The Crown
The Crown
of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), or simply the Polish Crown or just the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland
Poland
proper
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Kingdom Of Poland (1025–1385)
The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Królestwo Polskie [kruˈlɛstfɔ ˈpɔlskʲɛ]; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I the Brave
in 1025[2] to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
in 1385.[3] Contents1 Early Kingdom1.1 Period of fragmentation2 Dynastic change and union with Lithuania 3 See also 4 Notes4.1 Translations and transliterations5 ReferencesEarly Kingdom[edit]Coronation of the First King, Jan Matejko; depicts the coronation of Boleslaus I the BraveThe basis for the development of a Polish state was laid by the Piast dynasty, which had been preeminent since the 10th century. The conversion of Duke Mieszko I
Mieszko I
to Christianity
Christianity
paved the way for Poland to become a member of the family of Christian kingdoms
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History Of Poland
The history of Poland
Poland
has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.[1] The first ruling dynasty, the Piasts, emerged by the 10th century AD. Duke Mieszko I (d. 992) is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state and is widely recognized for the adoption of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
that followed his baptism in 966. Mieszko's duchy of Poland
Poland
was formally reconstituted as a medieval kingdom in 1025 by his son Bolesław I the Brave, known for military expansion under his rule. Perhaps the most successful of the Piast kings was the last one, Casimir III the Great, who presided over a brilliant period of economic prosperity and territorial aggrandizement before his death in 1370 without male heirs
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Polish Crown
Polish
Polish
/ˈpoʊlɪʃ/ may refer to:Anything from or related to Poland, a country in Europe Polish
Polish
language Poles, people from Poland
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Partitioned Poland
In 1795 the third and the last of the three 18th-century partitions of Poland
Poland
ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Nevertheless, events both within and outside the Polish lands kept hopes for restoration of Polish independence alive throughout the 19th century
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Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland
Poland
between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland
Poland
also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia
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People's Republic Of Poland
The Polish People's Republic
Republic
(Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary
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Marszałek Senatu
The Marshal of the Senate of the Republic of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Marszałek Senatu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is a presiding officer of the Senate of Poland
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Senate Of Poland
Government
Government
(66)[1]     PiS (66)Opposition (31)[1]     PO (31)Others (3)[1]     Independents (3)ElectionsVoting systemFirst-past-the-postLast electionOctober 2015Meeting placeThe Sejm
Sejm
Building Śródmieście, WarsawWebsitesenat.gov.plThe Senate
Senate
(Polish: Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'. The history of the Polish Senate
Senate
is rich in tradition and stretches back over 500 years. It was one of the first constituent bodies of a bicameral parliament in Europe and existed without hiatus until the dismemberment of the Polish state in 1795. After a brief period of existence in the inter-war period the Senate
Senate
was again abolished (by many accounts illegally) by the authorities of the People's Republic of Poland
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Voivodeships Of Poland
A województwo ([vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ]; plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, and is commonly translated in English as "province".[1] Województwo is also rendered in English by "voivodeship" (/ˈvɔɪvoʊdʃɪp/) or a variant spelling.[2] The Polish local government reforms
Polish local government reforms
adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999, created sixteen new voivodeships. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975, and bear greater resemblance (in territory but not in name) to the voivodeships that existed between 1950 and 1975. Today's voivodeships are mostly named after historical and geographical regions, while those prior to 1998 generally took their names from the cities on which they were centered
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Voivode
Voivode[1] (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/) (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans. The title voevodas (Greek: βοεβόδας) was first used in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
De Administrando Imperio to identify Hungarian military leaders.[2] In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Stanisław Lanckoroński (hetman)
Stanisław Lanckoroński
Lanckoroński
(c
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Field Marshal
Field marshal
Field marshal
(or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank
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Andrzej Opaliński (1540–1593)
Andrzej Opaliński
Opaliński
(1540–1593), of Łodzia coat of arms, was a Polish–Lithuanian nobleman. Court Crown Marshal from 1572; Great Crown Marshal from 1574, starost of Greater Poland from 1598. In 1575 supported Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
for the Polish crown
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