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Literacy
LITERACY is traditionally understood as the ability to read , write , and use arithmetic . The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD
OECD
countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being illiterate
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Classics
CLASSICS or CLASSICAL STUDIES is the study of classical antiquity . It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world , particularly of its languages, and literature ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Classical Latin) but also it encompasses the study of Greco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West , the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a necessary part of a rounded education. It has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education
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Ignace Gelb
IGNACE JAY GELB (October 14, 1907, Tarnau , Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(now Tarnów, Poland
Poland
) - December 22, 1985, Chicago, Illinois
Chicago, Illinois
) was a Polish -American ancient historian and Assyriologist who pioneered the scientific study of writing systems . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Contribution * 3 View of the Maya * 4 Work in Assyriology * 5 Notes * 6 References EARLY LIFEBorn in Tarnów , Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(now Poland
Poland
), he earned his PhD from the University of Rome in 1929, then went to the University of Chicago where he was a professor of Assyriology until his death
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Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded Manners of articulation * Obstruent * Stop * Affricate * Fricative * Strident * Sibilant * Sonorant * Nasal * Approximant
Approximant
* Semivowel * Vowel* Vibrant * Flap/Tap * Trill * Liquid * Rhotic * Lateral * Occlusive * Continuant AIRSTREAMS * Egressive * Ingressive * Ejective * Implosive * Nonexplosive * Lingual (clicks) * Linguo-pulmonic * Linguo-ejective * Percussive SEE ALSO * Articulatory phonetics * Aspirated consonant * No audible release * Phonation
Phonation
* Place of articulation * Voice * Voicelessness * v * t * e Vowels form one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being that of consonants
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Consonant
In articulatory phonetics , a CONSONANT is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract . Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and , pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives ); and and , which have air flowing through the nose (nasals ). Contrasting with consonants are vowels . Since the number of possible sounds in all of the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet , linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant
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Ancient Semitic-speaking Peoples
ANCIENT SEMITIC-SPEAKING PEOPLES were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East , including the Levant , Mesopotamia , Arabian peninsula , and Horn of Africa from the third millennia until the end of antiquity. The languages they spoke are usually divided into three branches: East , Central , and South Semitic . Proto-Semitic was likely spoken in the 4th millennium BC, and the oldest attested forms of Semitic date to the mid-3rd millennium (the Early Bronze Age ). Speakers of East Semitic include the Akkadians and the descended cultures of Assyria and Babylonia . Central Semitic combines Northwest Semitic and Arabic . Speakers of Northwest Semitic were the Canaanites (including the Phoenicians and the Hebrews ) and the Aramaeans . South Semitic peoples include the speakers of South Arabian and Ethiopic
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Social Anthropologist
SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY or ANTHROPOSOCIOLOGY is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular ), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology . In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology ). In contrast to cultural anthropology, culture and its continuity (including narratives , rituals , and symbolic behavior associated with them) have been traditionally seen more as the dependent 'variable' (cf. explanandum ) by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities, conflicts, and contradictions of social life , rather than the independent (explanatory) one (cf
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Logosyllabic
In written language , a LOGOGRAM or LOGOGRAPH is a written character that represents a word or phrase . Chinese characters
Chinese characters
and Japanese kanji are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms. The use of logograms in writing is called logography. A writing system that is based on logograms is called a logographic system. In alphabets and syllabaries , individual written characters represent sounds rather than concepts. These characters are called phonograms . Unlike logograms, phonograms do not necessarily have meaning by themselves, but are combined to make words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way is called phonemic orthography
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Olmec
The OLMECS were the first major civilization in Guatemala
Guatemala
and Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco and modern southwestern pacific lowlands of Guatemala. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz
Veracruz
and Tabasco . It has been speculated that Olmec
Olmec
derive in part from neighboring Mokaya and/or Mixe–Zoque . The population of the Olmecs flourished during Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
's formative period , dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre- Olmec
Olmec
cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600–1500 BCE, early Olmec
Olmec
culture had emerged, centered on the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz
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Zapotec Civilization
The ZAPOTEC CIVILIZATION was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. Archaeological evidence shows that their culture goes back at least 2,500 years. The Zapotec left archaeological evidence at the ancient city of Monte Albán in the form of buildings, ball courts , magnificent tombs and grave goods including finely worked gold jewelry. Monte Albán was one of the first major cities in Mesoamerica and the center of a Zapotec state that dominated much of the territory that today belongs to the Mexican state of Oaxaca
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Glyph
In typography , a GLYPH /ˈɡlɪf/ is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing . As such, glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word, or otherwise contribute to a specific meaning of what is written, with that meaning dependent on cultural and social usage. For example, in most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, and an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still likely to be recognized correctly. In Turkish, however, it is a glyph, because that language has two distinct versions of the letter i, with and without a dot . In Japanese syllabaries , a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves
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Shang Dynasty
The SHANG DYNASTY (Chinese : 商朝; pinyin : Shāng cháo) or YIN DYNASTY (殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography , ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents , Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin , the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 to 1046 BC
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Canaan
CANAAN (/ˈkeɪnən/ ; Northwest Semitic : knaʿn; Phoenician : 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew / Masoretic : כְּנָעַן ) was a Semitic -speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
. In the Bible
Bible
it corresponds to the Levant
Levant
, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant
Levant
that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
, i.e., the area of Israel
Israel
, Philistia , Phoenicia
Phoenicia
, and other nations
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Abjad
An ABJAD (pronounced /ˈæbdʒɑːd/ or /ˈæbdʒæd/ ) is a type of writing system where each symbol stands for a consonant , leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel . The name abjad is based on the old Arabic
Arabic
alphabet's first four letters – a, b, j, d – to replace the common terms "CONSONANTARY", "CONSONANTAL ALPHABET" or "syllabary " to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Terminology * 3 Origins * 4 Impure abjads * 4.1 Addition of vowels * 5 Abjads and the structure of Semitic languages * 6 Comparative chart of Abjads, extinct and extant * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources ETYMOLOGYThe name "abjad" (abjad أبجد) is derived from pronouncing the first letters of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet in order
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Claude F. A. Schaeffer
CLAUDE FRéDéRIC-ARMAND SCHAEFFER (1898–1982) was a French archeologist , born in Strasbourg, who led the French excavation team that began working on the site of Ugarit , the present day Minet el-Beida in 1929, leading to the uncovering of the Ugaritic religious texts . REFERENCES * ^ Biography of Claude F. A. Schaeffer * ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/612669/Ugarit ; "Claude Schaeffer", in Je m'appelle Byblos , Jean-Pierre Thiollet , H border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"> * WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 73910686 * LCCN : n84059691 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8153 6747 * GND : 172354994 * SUDOC : 033556083 * BNF : cb122577086 (data) This biographical article about an archaeologist is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Frank Moore Cross
FRANK MOORE CROSS, JR. (July 13, 1921 – October 16, 2012) was the Hancock Professor
Professor
of Hebrew
Hebrew
and Other Oriental Languages Emeritus at Harvard University
Harvard University
, notable for his work in the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
, his 1973 magnum opus Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, and his work in Northwest Semitic epigraphy . Many of his essays on the latter topic have since been collected in Leaves from an Epigrapher's Notebook
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