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Listeria Monocytogenes
Listeria
Listeria
monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen. It can grow and reproduce inside the host's cells and is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens, with 20 to 30% of food borne listeriosis infections in high-risk individuals may be fatal.[1] Responsible for an estimated 1,600 illnesses and 260 deaths in the United States (U.S.) annually, listeriosis ranks third in total number of deaths among food borne bacterial pathogens, with fatality rates exceeding even Salmonella
Salmonella
and Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum. In the European Union listeriosis follows an upward trend that began in 2008, causing 2,161 confirmed cases and 210 reported deaths in 2014, 16% more than in 2013
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Scanning Electron Microscope
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, and at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments.[1] The most common SEM mode is detection of secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons that can be detected depends, among other things, on specimen topography
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Serotype
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals. These microorganisms, viruses, or cells are classified together based on their cell surface antigens, allowing the epidemiologic classification of organisms to the sub-species level.[1][2][3] A group of serovars with common antigens is called a serogroup or sometimes serocomplex. Serotyping often plays an essential role in determining species and subspecies. The Salmonella
Salmonella
genus of bacteria, for example, has been determined to have over 2600 serotypes, including Salmonella
Salmonella
enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Typhi, and S. enterica serovar Dublin.[2] Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens
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Veterinarian
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English, Australian English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.Contents1 Description 2 Etymology and nomenclature 3 History 4 Roles and responsibilities 5 Employment5.1 Focus of practice 5.2 Veterinary specialties 5.3 Mobile vs Stationary Practice 5.4 Salary6 Education and regulation6.1 Veterinary science degrees6.1.1 List of AVMA Accredited Veterinary Colleges6.2 Registration and licensing 6.3 Postgraduate study6.3.1 ABVS Recognized Veterinary Specialties6.4 Curriculum comparison with human medicine7 Impact on human medicine 8 In popular culture 9 Veterinary malpractice 10 Criticisms 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External linksDescription[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Ruminant
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process, which takes place in the front part of the digestion system and therefore is called foregut fermentation, typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again
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Pathogenicity
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Brie Cheese
Brie
Brie
(/briː/; French: [bʁi]) is a soft cow's-milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne). It is pale in color with a slight grayish tinge under a rind of white mold. The rind is typically eaten, with its flavor depending largely upon the ingredients used and its manufacturing environment.Contents1 Production 2 Nutrition 3 Varieties3.1 Brie
Brie
de Meaux 3.2 Brie
Brie
de Melun 3.3 French non-AOC bries 3.4 International bries4 Serving 5 Storage 6 Comparison with Camembert 7 References 8 External linksProduction[edit] Brie
Brie
noir Brie
Brie
may be produced from whole or semi-skimmed milk. The curd is obtained by adding rennet to raw milk and warming it to a maximum temperature of 37 °C (99 °F)
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Camembert (cheese)
Camembert
Camembert
de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Related media on Wikimedia Commons Camembert
Camembert
(/ˈkæməmˌbɛər/; French: [ka.mɑ̃.bɛʁ]) is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century at Camembert, Normandy, in northern France.Contents1 Production 2 History 3 Chemical composition 4 Comparison to brie 5 Packaging 6 Camembert
Camembert
from other countries 7 References 8 External linksProduction[edit] The first camembert was made from unpasteurized milk, and the AOC variety " Camembert
Camembert
de Normandie" (approximately 10 % of the production) is required by law to be made only with unpasteurized milk
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Feta Cheese
Feta
Feta
(Greek: φέτα, féta, "slice") is a brined curd white cheese made in Greece
Greece
from sheep's milk or from a mixture of sheep and goat's milk. Similar brined white cheeses are often made partly or wholly of cow's milk, and they are sometimes also called feta. It is a crumbly aged cheese, commonly produced in blocks, and has a slightly grainy texture. Feta
Feta
is used as a table cheese, as well as in salads (e.g. the Greek salad) and pastries. Most notable is its use in the popular phyllo-based dishes spanakopita ("spinach pie") and tyropita ("cheese pie"), or served with some olive oil or olives and sprinkled with aromatic herbs such as oregano. It can also be served cooked or grilled, as part of a sandwich, in omelettes, or as a salty alternative to other cheeses in a variety of dishes. Since 2002, feta has been a protected designation of origin product in the European Union
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Queso Blanco
Queso blanco
Queso blanco
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkeso ˈβlaŋko]), with similar cheeses including queso fresco (pronounced [ˈkeso ˈfɾesko]), is a creamy, soft, and mild unaged white cheese, commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula, several Latin American countries including Mexico, and many parts of the United States. The name queso blanco is Spanish for "white cheese", but similar cheeses are used and known throughout the world. In Brazil
Brazil
they are respectively known as queijo branco (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkejʒu ˈbɾɐ̃ku]) and queijo fresco in Portugal
Portugal
([ˈkeijʒu ˈfɾeʃku]). It is similar to (if slightly more acidic than) pot cheese and farmer cheese
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Jonesia
The Jonesiaceae are a monotypic Actinobacteria family. Phylogeny[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[2] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [3]  JonesiaJ. denitrificans (Prévot 1961) Rocourt et al. 1987J. quinghaiensis Schumann et al. 2004References[edit]^ J.P. Euzéby. "Jonesiaceae". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Jonesiaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2011-06-05.  ^ All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)" (PDF)
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Harvey Pirie
Dr James Hunter Harvey Pirie FRSE FRCPE (10 December 1878[1] – 27 September 1965[2]) was a 20th century Scottish medical doctor, philatelist, orchid-grower and bacteriologist. Pirie named the bacterial genus Listeria in honor of Joseph Lister and the Pirie Peninsula is named after him. Cape Mabel was named after his wife. In authorship he is known as J. H. H. Pirie.Contents1 Life 2 Philately 3 Publications 4 See also 5 See also 6 References and sourcesLife[edit]Scotia, anchored at Laurie Island in 1903He was born in Glasgow the son of Dr John Pirie of 26 Elmbank Crescent.[3] Pirie earned his first medical degree at Glasgow University graduating MB ChB in 1902.[4] From 1902 until 1904 he participated in the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition on the ex-whaling ship "Scotia", under William Speirs Bruce, Pirie acting as both surgeon and geologist. This involved spending the majority of 1903 on a makeshift base on the South Orkney Islands
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Polymerization
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.[2][3][4] There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them.Contents1 Introduction 2 Step-growth 3 Chain-growth3.1 Physical polymer reaction engineering 3.2 Photopolymerization4 See also 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit]Homopolymers A + A + A + A . . . → A A A A . . . displaystyle A+A+A+A...rightarrow AAAA... Copolymers A + B + A + B . . . → A B A B . . . displaystyle A+B+A+B...rightarrow ABAB..
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Sepsis
Sepsis
Sepsis
is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.[8] Common signs and symptoms include fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, and confusion.[1] There also may be symptoms related to a specific infection, such as a cough with pneumonia, or painful urination with a kidney infection.[2] In the very young, old, and people with a weakened immune system, there may be no symptoms of a specific infection and the body temperature may be low or normal, rather than high.[2] Severe sepsis is sepsis causing poor orga
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East Germany
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic
Republic
(GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʀaːtɪʃə ʀepuˈbliːk], DDR), was a communist state[5][6] in Central Europe, during the Cold War
Cold War
period. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state."[6] From 1949 to 1990, it administered the portion of Germany
Germany
that had been occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II—the Soviet Occupation Zone
Soviet Occupation Zone
of the Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line
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Immunosuppressive Drug
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow, heart, kidney, liver) Treat autoimmune diseases or diseases that are most likely of autoimmune origin (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, vitiligo, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Crohn's disease, Behcet's Disease, pemphigus, and ulcerative colitis). Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control), ankylosing spondylitis.A common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs is immunodeficiency, because the majority of them act non-selectively, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections and decreased cancer immunosurveillance
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