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List Of Polish Jews
From the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
until the World War II
World War II
Holocaust, Jews comprised an appreciable part of the general Polish population. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as a "Jewish paradise" for its religious tolerance, had attracted tens of thousands of Jews who fled persecution from other European countries—though, at times, discrimination against Jews surfaced in Poland, as it did elsewhere in Europe. Poland
Poland
was a major spiritual and cultural center for Ashkenazi Jews. At the start of the Second World War, Poland
Poland
had the largest Jewish population in the world (over 3.3 million, some 10% of the general Polish population).[1] The vast majority were killed in the Holocaust during the German occupation of Poland, under the Nazi
Nazi
"Final Solution" mass-extermination program
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Julian Klaczko
Julian Klaczko (6 November 1825, Vilna (Wilno, Vilnius) – 26 November 1906, Kraków) was a Polish author, proficient in Hebrew, Polish, French, and German.[1] He was born Jehuda Lejb into a wealthy Jewish family. At the age of 17 he published a book of Hebrew
Hebrew
poetry called "Duda'im"(דודאים), as well as translating Polish literary works into Hebrew. He studied in Wilno
Wilno
and Königsberg
Königsberg
(Królewiec), his interests including Philosophy, History and Literature. In 1847, he earned a PhD (doctorate work De rebus Franco-Gallicis saeculi XV). He then moved to Heidelberg, and published in the liberal Deutsche Zeitung. After the failure of the Poznań uprising (1848) he emigrated to France where he lived for the following 20 years
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Nazi
National Socialism
Socialism
(German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism
Nazism
(/ˈnɑːtsi.ɪzəm, ˈnæt-/),[1] is the ideology and practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Nazi Germany and of other far-right groups with similar aims
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania. It was one of the largest[2][3] and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe
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Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews
Jews
or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‬, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modern Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‬ Y'hudey Ashkenaz),[18] are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.[19] The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish
Yiddish
(a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Final Solution
The Final Solution
Final Solution
(German: Endlösung) or the Final Solution
Final Solution
to the Jewish Question
Jewish Question
(German: die Endlösung der Judenfrage, pronounced [diː ˈɛntˌløːzʊŋ deːɐ̯ ˈjuːdn̩ˌfʁaːɡə]) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews
Jews
during World War II
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Australian Jews
Australians
Australians
(/əˈstreɪliən/), colloquially known as Aussies (/ˈɒzi/), are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English). Present-day Australians
Australians
are citizens of the Commonwealth of Australia, governed by its nationality law. The majority of Australians
Australians
descend from the peoples of the British Isles. The Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales
was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, and five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states
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Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
( listen (help·info); Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִין‬ Menaḥem Begin, Polish: Mieczysław Biegun; Russian: Менахем Вольфович Бегин Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud
Likud
and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. He proclaimed a revolt, on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government, which was opposed by the Jewish Agency
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David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
(Hebrew: דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן‎; pronounced [daˈvɪd ben gurˈjo:n] ( listen), born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel
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