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List Of EC Numbers (EC 5)
This list contains a list of EC numbers for the fifth group, EC 5, isomerases, placed in numerical order as determined by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Contents1 EC 5.1: Epimerases and racemases1.1 EC 5.1.1: Acting on Amino acids
Amino acids
and Derivatives 1.2 EC 5.1.2: Acting on Hydroxy acids
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ADP-glyceromanno-heptose 6-epimerase
In enzymology, an ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionADP-D-glycero-D-manno-heptose ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, ADP-D-glycero-D-manno-heptose, and one product, ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase. This enzyme participates in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. It employs one cofactor, NADP+ in a direct oxidation mechanism.Structural studies[edit] As of 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with the PDB accession code 1EQ2.References[edit]Read JA, Ahmed RA, Morrison JP, Coleman WG Jr, Tanner ME (2004)
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Ornithine Racemase
In enzymology, an ornithine racemase (EC 5.1.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionL-ornithine ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons D-ornithine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-ornithine, and one product, D-ornithine. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on amino acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ornithine racemase. This enzyme participates in d-arginine and d-ornithine metabolism. References[edit]Chen HP, Lin CF, Lee YJ, Tsay SS, Wu SH (2000). "Purification and properties of ornithine racemase from Clostridium sticklandii". J. Bacteriol. 182 (7): 2052–4. doi:10.1128/JB.182.7.2052-2054.2000. PMC 101933
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Isocitrate Epimerase
In enzymology, an isocitrate epimerase (EC 5.1.2.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction(1R,2S)-1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons (1S,2S)-1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (1R,2S)-1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate, and one product, (1S,2S)-1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (1R,2S)-1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate 1-epimerase. References[edit]Hoshiko S, Kunimoto Y, Arima K, Beppu T (1982). "Mechanism of L-alloisocitric acid fermentation: isocitrate epimerase activity in the cell-free-extract of Penicillium purpurogenum". Agric. Biol. Chem. 46: 143–151
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UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase
In enzymology, an UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionUDP-L-arabinose ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons UDP-D-xylose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-L-arabinose, and one product, UDP-D-xylose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-L-arabinose 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoarabinose epimerase, UDP arabinose epimerase, uridine 5'-diphosphate-D-xylose 4-epimerase, and UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase. This enzyme participates in nucleotide sugars metabolism. References[edit]FEINGOLD DS, NEUFELD EF, HASSID WZ (1960). "The 4-epimerization and decarboxylation of uridine diphosphate D-glucuronic acid by extracts from Phaseolus aureus seedlings". J. Biol. Chem
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Acetoin Racemase
In enzymology, an acetoin racemase (EC 5.1.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction(S)-acetoin ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons (R)-acetoin This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetoin racemase. This enzyme is also called acetylmethylcarbinol racemase. This enzyme participates in butanoate metabolism. References[edit]Taylor MB, Juni E (April 1960). "Stereoisomeric specificities of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 39 (3): 448–57
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3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA Epimerase
In enzymology, a 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA epimerase (EC 5.1.2.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons (R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA, and one product, (R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA 3-epimerase. Other names in common use include 3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A epimerase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA epimerase. This enzyme participates in fatty acid metabolism and butanoate metabolism.Structural studies[edit] As of late 2007, four structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1WDK, 1WDL, 1WDM, and 2D3T.References[edit]Stern JR, del Campillo A, Lehninger AL (1955)
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UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase
In enzymology, an UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionUDP-glucuronate ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons UDP-D-galacturonate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-glucuronate, and one product, UDP-D-galacturonate. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine diphospho-D-galacturonic acid, UDP glucuronic epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronic epimerase, UDP-galacturonate 4-epimerase, uridine diphosphoglucuronate epimerase, and UDP-D-galacturonic acid 4-epimerase. This enzyme participates in starch and sucrose metabolism and nucleotide sugars metabolism. References[edit]FEINGOLD DS, NEUFELD EF, HASSID WZ (1960)
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UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase
In enzymology, an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionUDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and one product, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include UDP acetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine epimerase, uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine-4-epimerase, and uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine-4-epimerase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism
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Hydroxy Acids
α-Hydroxy acids, or alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. They may be either naturally occurring or synthetic. AHAs are well known for their use in the cosmetics industry. They are often found in products that aid in the reduction of wrinkles as well as to soften strong, defining lines and improve the overall look and feel of the skin. They are also used as chemical peels available in a dermatologist's office, beauty and health spas and home kits, which usually contain a lower concentration of around 4%
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N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase
In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionN-acyl-D-glucosamine ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons N-acyl-D-mannosamine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, N-acyl-D-glucosamine, and one product, N-acyl-D-mannosamine. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase. Other names in common use include acylglucosamine 2-epimerase, and N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. It employs one cofactor, ATP. Structural studies[edit] As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with the PDB accession code 1FP3.References[edit]Ghosh S, Roseman S (April 1965). "The sialic acids. V. N-Acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry
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Isopenicillin-N Epimerase
In enzymology, an isopenicillin N epimerase (EC 5.1.1.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionisopenicillin N ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons penicillin N Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, isopenicillin N, and one product, penicillin N. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on amino acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is penicillin N 5-amino-5-carboxypentanoyl-epimerase. This enzyme participates in penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis.References[edit]Usui S, Yu CA (1989). "Purification and properties of isopenicillin N epimerase from Streptomyces clavuligerus". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 999 (1): 78–85
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N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase
In enzymology, a N-acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionN-acyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons N-acyl-D-mannosamine 6-phosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, N-acyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate, and one product, N-acyl-D-mannosamine 6-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-acyl-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase. Other names in common use include acylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase, and acylglucosamine phosphate 2-epimerase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. Structural studies[edit] As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1Y0E and 1YXY.References[edit]Ghosh S, Roseman S (April 1965). "THE SIALIC ACIDS
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2-aminohexano-6-lactam Racemase
In enzymology, a 2-aminohexano-6-lactam racemase (EC 5.1.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionL-2-aminohexano-6-lactam ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons D-2-aminohexano-6-lactam Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-2-aminohexano-6-lactam, and one product, D-2-aminohexano-6-lactam. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on amino acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-aminohexano-6-lactam racemase. This enzyme is also called alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase.References[edit]Ahmed SA, Esaki N, Tanaka H, Soda K (1984). "L-alpha-Amino-beta-thio-epsilon-caprolactam, a new sulfur-containing substrate for alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase". FEBS Lett. 174: 76–79
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Nocardicin-A Epimerase
In enzymology, a nocardicin-A epimerase (EC 5.1.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionisonocardicin A ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons nocardicin A Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, isonocardicin A, and one product, nocardicin A. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on amino acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is nocardicin-A epimerase. This enzyme is also called isonocardicin A epimerase. References[edit]Wilson BA, Bantia S, Salituro GM, Reeve AM, Townsend CA (1988). "c". J. Am. Chem. Soc
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Aspartate Racemase
In enzymology, an aspartate racemase (EC 5.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionL-aspartate ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons D-aspartate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-aspartate, and one product, D-aspartate. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on amino acids and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is aspartate racemase. Other names in common use include D-aspartate racemase, and McyF. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism.Structural studies[edit] As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1IU9, 1JFL, and 2DX7.References[edit]Lamont HC, Staudenbauer WL, Strominger JL (1972). "Partial purification and characterization of an aspartate racemase from Streptococcus faecalis". J. Biol. Chem
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