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Linguistic Relativity
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions. The strong version says that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories, whereas the weak version says that linguistic categories and usage only influence thought and decisions. The term "Sapir–Whorf hypothesis" is considered a misnomer by linguists for several reasons: Edward Sapir
Edward Sapir
and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored any works, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis
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Alfred M. Tozzer
Alfred Marston Tozzer (4 July 1877 – 5 October 1954) was an American anthropologist, archaeologist, linguist, and educator. His principal area of interest was Mesoamerican, especially Maya, studies.[1] He was the husband of Margaret Castle Tozzer [2] and father of figure skating champion Joan Tozzer.[3]Contents1 Early studies and career 2 Transition to archaeologist 3 Later career 4 Notes 5 External linksEarly studies and career[edit] Alfred Tozzer was born in Lynn, Massachusetts
Lynn, Massachusetts
to Samuel Clarence (1846-1908) and Caroline (née Marston, 1847-1926) Tozzer, and graduated in Anthropology
Anthropology
from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1900. That summer he entered field as an assistant to Harvard’s Roland Dixon
Roland Dixon
to study American Indian languages of California
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Inuit
WikiProjectIndigenous North AmericansFirst NationsCommons WiktionaryInuitCommons WiktionaryMétisCommons Wiktionaryv t eThe Inuit
Inuit
(pronounced /ˈɪnju.ɪt/; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people"[7]) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic
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St. Augustine
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430)[1] was an early Christian theologian
Christian theologian
and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in Western Christianity
Christianity
for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God, On Christian Doctrine
On Christian Doctrine
and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[note 1] In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism, later to neo-Platonism
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Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
OFM (/ˈbeɪkən/;[6] Latin: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Frater Rogerus; c. 1219/20 – c. 1292), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was an English philosopher and Franciscan
Franciscan
friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism. In the early modern era, he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head. He is sometimes credited (mainly since the 19th century) as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by Aristotle
Aristotle
and by Arab scientist Alhazen.[7] His linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar
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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth
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Morphological Typology
Morphological typology
Morphological typology
is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures. The field organizes languages on the basis of how those languages form words by combining morphemes. Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning. Synthetic languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories: agglutinative and fusional languages. Agglutinative languages rely primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories, such that the original root can be difficult to extract
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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William Dwight Whitney
William Dwight Whitney
William Dwight Whitney
(/ˈwɪtni/; February 9, 1827 – June 7, 1894) was an American linguist, philologist, and lexicographer known for his work on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar and Vedic philology as well as his influential view of language as a social institution. He was the first president of the American Philological Association and editor-in-chief of The Century Dictionary.Contents1 Life 2 Career 3 Honors 4 Works4.1 Modern collections5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] William Dwight Whitney
William Dwight Whitney
was born in Northampton, Massachusetts
Northampton, Massachusetts
on February 9, 1827. His father was Josiah Dwight Whitney (1786–1869) of the New England Dwight family. His mother was Sarah Williston (1800–1833).[citation needed] He entered Williams College
Williams College
at fifteen, graduating in 1845
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Indigenous Languages Of The Americas
Indigenous languages of the Americas
Americas
are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska
Alaska
and Greenland
Greenland
to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas
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Ethnography
Ethnography
Ethnography
(from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group
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Sophist
A sophist (Greek: σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics. In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The term originated from Greek σόφισμα, sophisma, from σοφίζω, sophizo "I am wise"; confer σοφιστής, sophistēs, meaning "wise-ist, one who does wisdom," and σοφός, sophós means "wise man". There are not many writings from and about the first sophists
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Myth
Myth
Myth
is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon.[3] The word "myth" is derived from the Greek word mythos (μῦθος), which simply means "story". Mythology
Mythology
can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths.[4] Myth
Myth
can mean 'sacred story', 'traditional narrative' or 'tale of the gods'. A myth can also be a story to explain why something exists.[5] Human cultures' mythologies usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines, or animals and plants. Most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history
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Modern Language
A modern language is any human language that is currently in use.[clarification needed] The term is used in language education to distinguish between languages which are used for day-to-day communication (such as French and German) and dead classical languages such as Latin
Latin
and Classical Chinese, which are studied for their cultural or linguistic value.[citation needed] SIL Ethnologue
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Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Nietzsche
(/ˈniːtʃə/[6] or /ˈniːtʃi/;[7] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] ( listen); 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin
Latin
and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.[8][9][10][11] He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy
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Alfred Korzybski
Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski ([kɔˈʐɨpski]; July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American independent scholar who developed a field called general semantics, which he viewed as both distinct from, and more encompassing than, the field of semantics. He argued that human knowledge of the world is limited both by the human nervous system and the languages humans have developed, and thus no one can have direct access to reality, given that the most we can know is that which is filtered through the brain's responses to reality. His best known dictum is "The map is not the territory".Contents1 Early life and career 2 General semantics 3 "To be" 4 Anecdotes 5 Influence 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life and career[edit]Alfred Korzybski's family coat-of-arms (see Abdank coat of arms).Korzybski was born in Warsaw, Poland
Poland
which at that time was part of the Russian Empire
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