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Line Regiment
The line regiments formed the majority of the regiments in European standing armies in the early 20th century. These were all the regiments that did not have a specialist role - such as guards regiments. They are also often referred to as regiments of the line or, depending on the branch, as "infantry of the line", "line cavalry", etc. For example, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the line regiments did not include the guards regiments, the Landwehr, Landsturm
Landsturm
or irregular light troops. When light infantry, that hitherto had been organised in small units like the free battalions (Freibataillone), became part of the line troops, and the Landwehr, national guards and the like became part of the warfighting army, the term "line regiment" was used to distinguish the standing, active, regular units from the rest. There were line regiments in the infantry (line infantry), cavalry and artillery
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Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
(from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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Hussars
A hussar (/həˈzɑːr/ hə-ZAR, /hʊˈzɑːr/[1]) was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian
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Royal Guard
A Royal Guard
Royal Guard
describes any group of military bodyguards, soldiers or armed retainers responsible for the protection of a royal person, such as Emperor/Empress, King/Queen, or Prince/Princess. They often are an elite unit of the regular armed forces, or are designated as such, and may maintain special rights or privileges.Contents1 Institution and tasks 2 Political importance 3 List of Royal Guards3.1 Past 3.2 Present4 See also 5 ReferencesInstitution and tasks[edit]Ernst Rudolf The Palace GuardRoyal Guards have historically comprised both purely ceremonial units serving in close proximity to the monarch, as well as regiments from all arms, forming a designated substantial elite and intended for active service as part of the army. An example of the first category would include the Tropas de la Casa Real of the Spanish Monarchy prior to 1930, comprising halberderos and a mounted escort
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Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
or the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary ( Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867
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Landwehr
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language
German language
term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to large-scale, low-strength fortifications. In German, the word means "defence of the country"; but the term as applied to an insurrectional militia is very ancient, and lantveri are mentioned in Baluzii Capitularia, as quoted in Hallam's Middle Ages, i
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Landsturm
In German-speaking countries, the term Landsturm
Landsturm
was historically used to refer to militia or military units composed of troops of inferior quality. It is particularly associated with Prussia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Sweden
Sweden
and the Netherlands.Contents1 Austria 2 Germany2.1 Prussia
Prussia
from 1813 2.2 North German Confederation
North German Confederation
from 1867 2.3 Bavaria from 18683 Sweden 4 Switzerland 5 See also 6 ReferencesAustria[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The Austro-Hungarian Landsturm
Landsturm
was a reserve force that consisted of men aged 34 to 55
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Light Infantry
Light infantry
Light infantry
is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry. Historically, light infantry often fought as skirmishers — soldiers who fight in a loose formation ahead of the main army to harass, delay and generally "soften up" an enemy before the main battle
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Infantry
Infantry
Infantry
is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport
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Lancers
A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance. Lances were used in mounted warfare by the Assyrians as early as 700 BC and subsequently by Greek, Persian, Gallic, Han-Chinese, nomadic and Roman horsemen.[1] The weapon was widely used in Asia and Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
by armoured cavalry, before being adopted by light cavalry, particularly in Eastern Europe
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Standing Armies
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army. It is composed of full-time soldiers (who may be either career soldiers or conscripts) and is not disbanded during times of peace. It differs from army reserves, who are enrolled for the long term, but activated only during wars or natural disasters, and temporary armies, which are raised from the civilian population only during a war or threat of war and disbanded once the war or threat is over. The term dates from approximately 1600, although the phenomenon it describes is much older.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Great Britain 1.2 United States2 See also 3 ReferencesHistory[edit] Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria (ruled 745–727 BC) created Assyria's first standing army.[2][3] The first known standing armies in Europe were in ancient Greece. The male citizen body of ancient Sparta functioned as a standing army, unlike all other city-states (Poleis), whose armies were citizen militias
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Artillery
Artillery
Artillery
is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army's total firepower. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, rockets and guided missiles
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British Army
The British Army
Army
is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2017, the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 26,500 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.[4] Since April 2013, Ministry of Defence publications have not reported the entire strength of the Regular Reserve; instead, only Regular Reserves serving under the fixed-term reserve contracts have been counted.[5] The modern British Army
Army
traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army
Army
that was created during the Restoration in 1660
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First World War
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Dragoon Guards
Dragoon
Dragoon
Guards was the designation used to refer to certain heavy cavalry regiments in the British Army from the 18th century onwards. While the Prussian and Russian armies of the same period included dragoon regiments among their respective Imperial Guards, different titles were applied to these units.Contents1 Origins 2 Title 3 Seniority 4 British Dragoon
Dragoon
Guards Regiments 5 References 6 External linksOrigins[edit] The British Army first used the designation in 1746, when the King's Own Regiment
Regiment
of Horse, the Queen's Own Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Horse (prior to 1727 the Princess of Wales's Own) and the 4th Horse were redesignated as the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Dragoon
Dragoon
Guards respectively. In 1788 the four remaining regiments of Horse were converted into the 4th to 7th Dragoon
Dragoon
Guards
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