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Limatula
See text. LIMATULA, the FILE SHELLS or FILE CLAMS, is a genus of marine bivalve molluscs in the family Limidae . SPECIES * Limatula attenuata Dall , 1916 - attenuate fileclam * Limatula aupouria Powell , 1937 * Limatula confusa (E. A. Smith , 1885) - confusing fileclam * Limatula gwyni (Sykes, 1903) * Limatula hendersoni Olsson and McGinty, 1958 - henderson fileclam, minute fileclam * Limatula hodgsoni (E. A. Smith, 1907) * Limatula hyalina A. E. Verrill and Bush, 1898 - ahyaline fileclam, hyaline fileclam * Limatula hyperborea A. S. Jensen, 1909 - Arctic fileclam, boreal fileclam * Limatula japonica A. Adams , 1864 - Japan fileclam * Limatula maoria Finlay , 1927 * Limatula regularis A. E
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Harold John Finlay
HAROLD JOHN FINLAY (22 March 1901 – 7 April 1951) was a New Zealand palaeontologist and conchologist . He was born in Comilla , India
India
(now Bangladesh
Bangladesh
), on 22 March 1901. His main research interest was marine and non-marine malacofauna of New Zealand , both recent and fossil. He also specialised on fossil Foraminifera
Foraminifera
. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand
in 1939, and was awarded the scoiety's Hector Memorial Medal in 1941. CONTENTS * 1 Bibliography * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links BIBLIOGRAPHYMany of Finlay's works were published in Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand abbreviated as Trans. N.Z. Inst. (incomplete; complete only for publications from Trans. N.Z. Inst.) 1923 * Finlay H. J. 1923
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Arthur Adams (zoologist)
ARTHUR ADAMS (1820 in Gosport , Hampshire – 1878) was an English physician and naturalist . Adams was assistant surgeon Royal Navy on board HMS Samarang during the survey of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, from 1843 to 1846. He edited the Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Samarang (1850). Adam White collaborated with him in the descriptions of the Crustacea from the voyage. In 1857, during the Second China War whilst serving as Surgeon on HMS Actaeon , he was present at the storming of Canton and awarded the China War Medal . He retired as Staff Surgeon aboard flagship HMS Royal Adelaide at Plymouth in 1870. He was a prolific malacologist who described "hundreds of new species, most of them unillustrated and insufficiently diagnosed". He partly worked together with his brother Henry Adams (1813–1877) and together they wrote The genera of recent mollusca: arranged according to their organization (three volumes, 1858)
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Arthur William Baden Powell
ARTHUR WILLIAM BADEN POWELL CBE (4 April 1901 – 1 July 1987) was a New Zealand malacologist , naturalist and palaeontologist , a major influence in the study and classification of New Zealand molluscs through much of the 20th century. He was known to his friends and family by his third name, "Baden". The name Baden had been a given name in a Powell family since 1731, when Susannah Powell née Thistlethwayte (1696-1762) gave to her child (1731-1792) the maiden name of her mother, Susannah Baden (1663-1692). The name Baden, particularly when associated with the surname Powell, became famous in 1900-1901, the year Arthur William Baden Powell was born, because of the Siege of Mafeking
Siege of Mafeking
, the most famous British action in the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
, which turned the British Commander of the besieged, Robert Baden-Powell , into a national hero
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Rodolfo Amando Philippi
RODOLFO AMANDO (or RUDOLPH AMANDUS) PHILIPPI (14 September 1808 – 23 July 1904) was a German–Chilean paleontologist and zoologist . He left his native Germany as a young man because he thought he was gravely ill and preferred to die in the mild climate of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region. He recovered and did considerable work there, including Abbildungen (illustrated monographs). Then he was invited to Chile
Chile
by his brother Bernhard Eunom Philippi who worked for the government there. He moved to Santiago , Chile
Chile
in 1851. There, he became a professor of botany and zoology and the director of the natural-history museum, and was a regular collaborator with Christian Ludwig Landbeck . Philippi described three new species of South American lizards. His grandson, Rodulfo Amando Philippi Bañados (1905-1969), was also a zoologist
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Integrated Taxonomic Information System
The INTEGRATED TAXONOMIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species . ITIS was originally formed in 1996 as an interagency group within the U.S. federal government, involving several US Federal agencies, and has now become an international body, with Canadian and Mexican government agencies participating. The database draws from a large community of taxonomic experts. Primary content staff are housed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and IT services are provided by a US Geological Survey facility in Denver. The primary focus of ITIS is North American species, but many groups are worldwide and ITIS continues to collaborate with other international agencies to increase its global coverage
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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HarperCollins
HARPERCOLLINS PUBLISHERS LLC is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the "Big Five " English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette , Macmillan , Penguin Random House
Penguin Random House
, and Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster
. The company is headquartered in New York City and is a subsidiary of News Corp
News Corp
. The company name is a combination of several publishing firm names: Harper & Row
Harper & Row
, an American publishing company acquired in 1987, whose own name was the result of an earlier merger of Harper & Brothers
Harper & Brothers
(founded 1817) and Row, Peterson together with UK publishing company William Collins, Sons (founded 1819), acquired in 1990. The worldwide CEO of HarperCollins
HarperCollins
is Brian Murray
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W.H. Dall
WILLIAM HEALEY DALL (August 21, 1845 – March 27, 1927) was an American naturalist , a prominent malacologist , and one of the earliest scientific explorers of interior Alaska. He described many mollusks of the Pacific Northwest of America, and was for many years America's preeminent authority on living and fossil mollusks . Dall also made substantial contributions to ornithology , vertebrate and invertebrate zoology , physical and cultural anthropology , oceanography and paleontology . In addition he carried out meteorological observations in Alaska for the Smithsonian Institution . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 First positions, first expeditions * 1.3 1880 and after * 1.4 Societies and honors * 2 Publications * 3 Genera and species named in his honor * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFEDall was born in Boston , Massachusetts
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Edgar Albert Smith
EDGAR ALBERT SMITH (29 November 1847 in London
London
– 22 July 1916 in Acton ) was a British zoologist , a malacologist . His father was the Frederick Smith , a well-known entomologist , and Assistant Keeper of Zoology in the British Museum, Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
. Edgar Albert Smith was educated both at the North London
London
Collegiate School and privately , being well grounded in Latin amongst other subjects, as his excellent diagnoses bear witness. Smith married in July 1876. Subsequently, he and his wife had four sons and two daughters. He gave more prominent attention to the fauna of the African Great Lakes and the marine molluscs of South Africa , and also the non-marine mollusk fauna of Borneo
Borneo
and New Guinea
New Guinea

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Bivalvia
See text Empty shell of the giant clam (Tridacna gigas) Empty shells of the sword razor ( Ensis ensis) BIVALVIA, in previous centuries referred to as the LAMELLIBRANCHIATA and PELECYPODA, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. BIVALVES as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore . They include the clams , oysters , cockles , mussels , scallops , and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders . The gills have evolved into ctenidia , specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation . Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Pteriomorphia
The PTERIOMORPHIA comprise a subclass of saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks . It contains several major orders, including the Arcoida , Ostreoida
Ostreoida
, Pectinoida , Limoida , Mytiloida , and Pterioida . It also contains some extinct and probably basal families , such as the Evyanidae , Colpomyidae , Bakevelliidae , Cassianellidae , and Lithiotidae . This subclass of mollusks has lamellibranch gills , and is epibenthic . Some attach to the substrate using a byssus . The foot is reduced. The mantle margins are not fused. Gills are usually large and assist in feeding. This group includes the well known mussels , scallops , pen shells , and oysters . It also includes the only members of the class bivalvia to have rudimentary eyes
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Marine (ocean)
MARINE is an adjective for things relating to the sea or ocean , such as marine biology , marine ecology and marine geology . As a noun it can be a term for a kind of navy , those enlisted in such a navy, or members of troops attached to a navy, e.g. the United States Marine Corps or the UK Royal Marines . In scientific contexts, the term almost always refers exclusively to saltwater environments, although in other contexts (e.g., engineering ) it may refer to any (usually navigable) body of water
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