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Light Cavalry
LIGHT CAVALRY, often called LIGHT HORSE, comprises lightly armed and lightly armoured troops mounted on horses , as opposed to heavy cavalry , where the riders (and sometimes the horses) are heavily armored. The missions of the light cavalry were primarily reconnaissance , screening , skirmishing , raiding , and most importantly, communications, and were usually armed with spears , swords , bows and later carbines . Light cavalry
Light cavalry
was used infrequently by the Greeks and Romans (though Roman auxiliaries were often mounted), but were popular among the armies of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Southwest Asia . The Arabs , Hungarians , Huns , Mongols
Mongols
, Turks , Parthians , and Persians were all adept light cavalrymen and horse archers . With the decline of feudalism and knighthood in Europe, light cavalry became more prominent in the armies of the continent
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Turkic Peoples
Islam ( Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja\'fari ) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity ) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites ) Irreligion ( Agnosticism · Atheism ) Buddhism , Animism , Tengrism , Shamanism , Mani The TURKIC PEOPLES are a collection of ethnic groups that live in central, eastern, northern, and western Asia as well as parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family . They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds
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Parthians
PARTHIA ( Old Persian
Old Persian
: 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, Parthian : 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, Middle Persian
Middle Persian
: 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran
Iran
. It was the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(247 BC – 224 AD). The name "Parthia" is a continuation from Latin Parthia, from Old Persian Parthava, which was the Parthian language self-designator signifying "of the Parthians" who were an Iranian people. In context to its Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
, Parthia
Parthia
also appears as Parthyaea
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Persian People
The PERSIANS are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran
Iran
. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language
Persian language
, as well as closely related languages. The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed greatly to various forms of art , owning one of the world\'s most prominent literary traditions , and have made contributions in numerous other fields, including mathematics, theology, medicine, and various other sciences
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Horse Archer
A HORSE ARCHER is a cavalryman armed with a bow , able to shoot while riding from horseback. Archery
Archery
has occasionally been used from the backs of other riding animals. In large open areas, it was a highly successful technique for hunting, for protecting the herds, and for war. It was a defining characteristic of the Eurasian nomads
Eurasian nomads
during antiquity and the medieval period, as well as the Iranian peoples ( Scythians
Scythians
, Sarmatians
Sarmatians
, Parthians , Sassanid Persians ) and Indians in antiquity, and by the Mongols
Mongols
and the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
during the Middle Ages. By the expansion of these peoples, the practice also spread to Eastern Europe (via the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and the Huns
Huns
), to Mesopotamia, and to East Asia
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Mongols
The MONGOLS (Mongolian : Монголчууд, Mongolchuud, ) are an East -Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China
China
's Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region . They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang ), as well as in Russia
Russia
. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia . The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language . The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols
Mongols
are referred to as Proto-Mongols
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Huns
The HUNS were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th century AD and the 7th century AD. As per European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River
Volga River
, in an area that was part of Scythia
Scythia
at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans
Alans
. By 370 AD, the Huns
Huns
had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns
Huns
had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe
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Central Asia
CENTRAL ASIA stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix " -stan ", meaning "land of". Central Asia
Asia
is sometimes referred to as Turkestan
Turkestan
. Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop
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Southwest Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia
Asia
. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East
Near East
), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt
Egypt
(which would be counted as part of North Africa
North Africa
). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
Egypt

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Hungarian People
HUNGARIANS, also known as MAGYARS (Hungarian : magyarok), are both a nation and an ethnic group whose members speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary
Hungary
. There are around 13.1–14.7 million Hungarians, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary (as of 2011). About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon , and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania
Romania
, Austria
Austria
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine
Ukraine

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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Knight
A KNIGHT is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors . During the High Middle Ages , knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility . By the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback . Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust ) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Scipio Africanus
PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO AFRICANUS (236–183 BC), also known as SCIPIO THE AFRICAN, SCIPIO AFRICANUS-MAJOR, SCIPIO AFRICANUS THE ELDER and SCIPIO THE GREAT, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War where he is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle at Zama , one of the feats that earned him the agnomen Africanus. Although considered a hero by the general Roman populace, primarily for his contributions in the struggle against the Carthaginians, Scipio was reviled by other patricians of his day. In his later years, he was tried for bribery and treason, unfounded charges that were only meant to discredit him before the public. Disillusioned by the ingratitude of his peers, Scipio left Rome and withdrew from public life
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Second Punic War
768,500 * 54,000 Active Roman soldiers * 53,500 Roman capital detail * 388,000 Socii * 273,300 Reserves 700,000+ CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 300,000+ 316,000+ * v * t * e Second Punic War
Second Punic War
Prelude * Saguntum * Rhone * Crossing of the Alps Hannibal's invasion of Ita
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Reconquista
The RECONQUISTA (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is the period of history of the Iberian Peninsula spanning approximately 780 years between the Islamic conquest of Hispania
Hispania
in 711 and the fall of the last Islamic state in Iberia at Granada
Granada
to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The Reconquista
Reconquista
was completed just before the European discovery of the Americas
Americas
—the " New World
New World
"—which ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires . Historians traditionally mark the beginning of the Reconquista
Reconquista
with the Battle of Covadonga (718 or 722), the first victory by Christian military forces since the 711 Islamic conquest of Iberia by the Umayyad Caliphate
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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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