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Lifeboatman
A rescue lifeboat is a boat rescue craft which is used to attend a vessel in distress, or its survivors, to rescue crew and passengers. It can be hand pulled, sail powered or powered by an engine
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Lifeboat (shipboard)
A lifeboat is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship. Lifeboat drills are required by law on larger commercial ships. Rafts (liferafts) are also used. In the military, a lifeboat may double as a whaleboat, dinghy, or gig. The ship's tenders of cruise ships often double as lifeboats. Recreational sailors usually carry inflatable life rafts, though a few prefer small proactive lifeboats that are harder to sink and can be sailed to safety.Proactive lifeboat, sailing. Note unzipped middle section of canopy and reefed sail.An image depicting the sinking of RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
surrounded by lifeboatsInflatable lifeboats may be equipped with auto-inflation (carbon dioxide or nitrogen) canisters or mechanical pumps
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Revenue Cutter Service
The United States
United States
Revenue Cutter Service was established by an act of Congress (1 Stat. 175) on 4 August 1790 as the Revenue-Marine upon the recommendation of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
to serve as an armed customs enforcement service. As time passed, the service gradually gained missions either voluntarily or by legislation, including those of a military nature. It was generally referred to as the Revenue-Marine until July 1894, when it was officially renamed the Revenue Cutter Service. The Revenue Cutter Service operated under the authority of the U.S. Department of the Treasury
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Keel
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation. The word can also be used as a synecdoche to refer to a complete boat, such as a keelboat.Contents1 History 2 Structural keels 3 Hydrodynamic keels3.1 Non-sailing keels 3.2 Sailboat
Sailboat
keels4 Etymology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] The adjustable centerboard keel traces its roots to the medieval Chinese Song dynasty. Many Song Chinese junk ships had a ballasted and bilge keel that consisted of wooden beams bound together with iron hoops
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River Tyne
The River
River
Tyne /ˈtaɪn/ ( listen) is a river in North East England
England
and its length (excluding tributaries) is 73 miles (118 km).[1] It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne
North Tyne
and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham
Hexham
in Northumberland
Northumberland
at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'. The North Tyne
North Tyne
rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water. It flows through Kielder Forest, and in and out of the border. It then passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham. The South Tyne
South Tyne
rises on Alston Moor, Cumbria
Cumbria
and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle
Haltwhistle
and Haydon Bridge, in a valley often called the Tyne Gap
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Henry Greathead
Henry Francis Greathead (1757–1818) was a pioneering rescue lifeboat builder from South Shields.[1][2] Although Lionel Lukin had patented a lifeboat in 1785,[3] Greathead successfully petitioned parliament in 1802 with the claim that he had invented a lifeboat in 1790, and he was awarded £1,200 for his trouble.[4] Although his claims have been contested,[5] he did build 31 boats, which saved very many lives, and succeeded in making the concept of a shore-based rescue lifeboat widely accepted.Contents1 Early life 2 Lifeboat design 3 Recognition 4 Criticisms 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] He was born on 27 January 1757 in Richmond, North Yorkshire, but the family moved to South Shields
South Shields
in 1763. His father was well off, having been in public service for 46 years, as an officer of salt duties and later as supervisor and comptroller of the district
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William Wouldhave
William Wouldhave (1751–1821) is a rival of Lionel Lukin for recognition as inventor of the lifeboat. His tombstone, erected thirteen years before Lukin’s, describes William Wouldhave as;‘Inventor of that invaluable blessing to mankind the Lifeboat’.Contents1 Personal History 2 Lifeboat Invention 3 Other Claims 4 Other Inventors 5 ReferencesPersonal History[edit] William Wouldhave was born in Liddle Street, North Shields
North Shields
in 1751 and baptised in Christ Church then in the parish of Tynemouth. The boundaries have since changed and both are now in North Shields, Tyne and Wear, England. He was apprenticed as a house painter before moving to become parish clerk in South Shields, County Durham
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Newhaven, East Sussex
Newhaven is a town in the Lewes
Lewes
District of East Sussex
East Sussex
in England.[3] It lies at the mouth of the River Ouse, on the English Channel
English Channel
coast, and is a ferry port for services to Dieppe
Dieppe
in France. It was formerly known as Meeching.Contents1 Origins 2 Port2.1 History 2.2 Lifeboat3 Industry 4 Military 5 Layout 6 Governance 7 Demography 8 Landmarks 9 Transport 10 Education, culture and religion10.1 Twinning 10.2 Sport11 Notable people 12 References 13 External linksOrigins[edit] See also: River Ouse, Sussex Newhaven lies at the mouth of the River Ouse, in the valley the river has cut through the South Downs
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HMS Brazen (1798)
HMS Brazen was the French privateer Invincible General Bonaparte (or Invincible Bonaparte or Invincible Buonaparte), which the British captured in 1798. She is best known for her wrecking in January 1800 in which all but one of her crew drowned.Contents1 Capture 2 Service 3 Wreck 4 Postscript 5 See also 6 Citations 7 References 8 External linksCapture[edit] Invincible General Bonaparte was a French privateer of 20 guns and 170 men under the command of Jean Pierre Lamothe and under the ownership of Salanche, Bordeaux
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Landguard Fort Lifeboat
The Landguard Fort Lifeboat is an example of early attempts to design an unsinkable vessel. Several years before the foundation of the RNLI, Richard Hall Gower had been addressing the special problems of lifeboat design. Bayleys at Ipswich
Ipswich
built one to his design, being paid for by public subscription initiated by Admiral Page. They launched her from the yard near Stoke Bridge in April 1821 and thoroughly tested her on the Orwell. She took station at Landguard Fort, South of Felixstowe. There is a plan of this vessel in Gower’s “Original Observations” . She had a long flat floor, flared out to project at both head and stern. She was steered by a long sweep over the stern. Fourteen copper-clad water-tight cases, five on each side and four down the mid line provided buoyancy
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Richard Hall Gower
Captain Richard Hall Gower (1768–1833) was an English mariner, empirical philosopher, nautical inventor, entrepreneur, and humanitarian.Contents1 Mariner 2 Empirical Philosopher 3 Inventor 4 Entrepreneur 5 Humanitarian 6 ReferencesMariner[edit] Richard was the youngest son of Rev. Foote Gower, physician and antiquarian. He won a scholarship to Winchester College. He left school, "thankfully", to join the British East India Company
British East India Company
as a midshipman in the vessel Essex carrying troops and invalids. He was a lively and observant lad. At the age of 16 he was promoted captain of the main top, where he waged active war with the lads of the fore top, shrouds and stays providing the high roads of communication
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James Beeching
James Beeching
James Beeching
(1788 – 7 June 1858) was an English boat builder. He invented a "self-righting lifeboat", and designed a type of fishing boat which became characteristic of the port of Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
in the 19th century. He also built ships for the smuggling trade.[2]Contents1 Life and work 2 Legacy 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife and work[edit] Beeching was born at Bexhill in Sussex
Sussex
(now East Sussex), in 1788, to a family who had connections with smuggling, and served an apprenticeship in nearby Hastings
Hastings
as a boat builder. In 1809, he married Martha Thwaites (1789–1831), daughter of shipowner Thomas Thwaites; they went on to have nine children. Beeching and a partner ran a shipbuilding yard in Hastings
Hastings
for several years, until it failed in 1816 and was purchased by Thomas Thwaites
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United States Life Saving Service
The United States Life-Saving Service
United States Life-Saving Service
was a United States government agency that grew out of private and local humanitarian efforts to save the lives of shipwrecked mariners and passengers. It began in 1848 and ultimately merged with the Revenue Cutter Service
Revenue Cutter Service
to form the United States Coast Guard in 1915. Contents1 Early years 2 Formal structure 3 Merger to create Coast Guard 4 See also 5 References 6 Additional reading 7 External linksEarly years[edit]The Cape Hatteras Life-Saving Station. The Station was in use from 1832 until the 1940s. It was demolished by 1949.The concept of assistance to shipwrecked mariners from shore based stations began with volunteer lifesaving services, spearheaded by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Humane Society. It was recognized that only small boats stood a chance in assisting those close to the beach
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United States Coast Guard
The United States
United States
Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces[6] and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission (with jurisdiction in both domestic and international waters) and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, and can be transferred to the U.S. Department of the Navy by the U.S. President at any time, or by the U.S. Congress during times of war
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Buoyancy
In physics, buoyancy (/ˈbɔɪənsi, -əntsi, ˈbuːjənsi, -jəntsi/)[1][2] or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink
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Internal Combustion Engine
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle
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