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Li Huaixian
Li Huaixian (李懷仙) (died July 8, 768[1]) was a general of the Chinese rebel state Yan, who later submitted to and became a general of Tang Dynasty, from which Yan had rebelled. As was in the case of several other Yan generals who submitted to Tang but who had substantial army and territorial holdings, Li was allowed to retain his command and territory, semi-independent of the Tang imperial government structure, but unlike the others, he was unable to hold on to power for long and was assassinated in 768 by his subordinates Zhu Xicai, Zhu Ci, and Zhu Tao.Contents1 Background 2 During Anshi Rebellion 3 After the Anshi Rebellion 4 Notes and referencesBackground[edit] It is not known when Li Huaixian was born, but it is known that he was from Liucheng (柳城, in modern Chaoyang, Liaoning) and that he was of Xiongnu
Xiongnu
stock
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History Of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Zizhi Tongjian
The Zizhi Tongjian
Zizhi Tongjian
(Chinese: 資治通鑑; literally: "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance") is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 , in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Song
Emperor Yingzong of Song
ordered the great historian Sima Guang
Sima Guang
(1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu,[1] the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed,[1] and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song
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Huige
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editPart of a series on theHistory of KazakhstanAncientScythiaSaka Kangju
Kangju
KingdomHunsKhanatesRouran 330–555Turkic (Göktürks) 552–745Karluk 665–744Kimek 743–1220Oghuz 750–1055Kara-Khanid 840–1212Qara Khitai 1124–1218
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Fanyang
Yanjing (Chinese: 燕京, also known as Youzhou
Youzhou
幽州, Ji 薊 or Fanyang 范陽 for administrative purposes) was an ancient city and capital of the State of Yan in northern China. It was located in modern Beijing.[1] History[edit] Yanjing was founded by State of Yan, whose rulers made it their capital city. After the conquest of Yan by the State of Qin, the city was made the capital of Guangyang commandery (simplified Chinese: 广阳郡; traditional Chinese: 廣陽郡). During the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 BCE), the city was renamed Fanyang as the capital of Yuyang commandery (漁陽郡). It was the administrative center of Youzhou
Youzhou
at the time of the Eastern Han (25–220 CE). Due to its proximity to the northern border of China, Yanjing was constantly involved in armed contests with various external powers
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Yan (Anshi)
Yan (Chinese: 燕; pinyin: Yān), also known as the Great Yan (Chinese: 大燕; pinyin: Dà Yān), was a state established in 756 by the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
general An Lushan, after he rebelled against the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
in 755
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Shi Siming
Shi Siming
Shi Siming
(史思明) (703 – 18 April 761[3]), or Shi Sugan (史窣干),(Uyghur سۆيگۈن، سۆيگۈن سانغۇن) was a general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty
Dynasty
who followed his childhood friend An Lushan
An Lushan
in rebelling against Tang, and who later succeeded An Lushan's son An Qingxu
An Qingxu
as emperor of the Yan state that An Lushan established.Contents1 Background 2 Under Emperor Xuanzong's rule 3 During the Anshi Rebellion3.1 Under An Lushan's rule 3.2 Under An Qingxu's rule 3.3 Brief submission to Emperor Suzong and re-rebellion 3.4 As emperor4 Personal information 5 Notes and referencesBackground[edit] It is not known when Shi Sugan was born, other than that he was born one day before his friend An Lushan
An Lushan
and that they grew up together
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An Qingxu
An Qingxu
An Qingxu
(安慶緒) (died 10 April 759[2]), né An Renzhi (安仁執), was a son of An Lushan, a general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty
Dynasty
who rebelled and took imperial title of his own state of Yan. An Qingxu
An Qingxu
served as the Prince of Jin in 756–757, and later killed his father and took the imperial title for himself. He was eventually defeated by Tang forces and cornered at Yecheng. After An Lushan's general Shi Siming
Shi Siming
lifted the siege, An Qingxu
An Qingxu
met Shi to thank him, and Shi arrested and executed him.Contents1 Under Tang rule 2 Under An Lushan's rule 3 As emperor 4 Personal information 5 Notes and referencesUnder Tang rule[edit] It is not known when An Renzhi was born, although he was said to be not yet 20 when Emperor Xuanzong gave him the mostly honorary title of minister of vassal affairs, likely in 751
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Battle Of Yongqiu
The Battle of Yongqiu
Yongqiu
(雍丘之戰, pinyin: Yōngqiū zhī zhàn) was a battle in Yongqiu
Yongqiu
(current Qi County, Kaifeng) in 756 AD during the An Shi Rebellion, between An Lushan
An Lushan
and the Tang army. The Tang army, led by Zhang Xun, finally won this battle.Contents1 Background 2 Process 3 Aftermath 4 External linksBackground[edit] An Lushan
An Lushan
had enjoyed many successes early on in his rebellion. His army numbered more than 160,000, and was growing rapidly. In the fall of 755, An Lushan
An Lushan
won a major victory at Luoyang, the eastern capital of the Tang Dynasty. With civilians losing faith in the Tang Dynasty, and more people and generals joining An Lushan's newly proclaimed Great Yan Dynasty every day, it seemed that the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was near its end
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Emperor Xuanzong Of Tang
Emperor
Emperor
Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685[5][8] – 3 May 762[6]), also commonly known as Emperor
Emperor
Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji (Chinese: 武隆基) from 690 to 705,[9] was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty. In the early half of his reign he was a diligent and astute ruler
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An Shi Rebellion
Tang victoryFall of Yan Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
weakenedBelligerentsTang dynasty YanCommanders and leadersTang Xuanzong Tang Suzong Tang Daizong Feng Changqing Gao Xianzhi Geshu Han Guo Ziyi Li Guangbi Zhang Xun An Lushan An Qingxu Shi Siming Shi ChaoyiStrengthc. 600,000–700,000 at peak c. 200,000–300,000 at peakCasualties and lossesHeavy, but uncertainThe An Lushan
An Lushan
Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. The rebellion overtly began on 16 December 755, when general An Lushan
An Lushan
declared himself emperor in Northern China, thus establishing a rival Yan Dynasty, and ended when Yan fell on 17 February 763 (although the effects lasted past this)
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An Lushan
An Lushan
An Lushan
(c. 703[2] – 29 January 757[3]) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion. An Lushan
An Lushan
was of Sogdian and Göktürk origin,[4][5][6][7][8][9] at least by adoption.[10] He rose to military prominence by defending the northeastern Tang frontier from the Khitans and other threats. He was summoned to Chang'an, the Tang capital, several times and managed to gain favor with Chancellor Li Linfu and Emperor Xuanzong of Tang. This allowed An Lushan
An Lushan
to amass significant military power in northeast China
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Khitan People
Animism • Taoism
Taoism
 • Buddhism
Buddhism
 •
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Xiongnu
The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu) were a confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe
Asian Steppe
from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire.[4] After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu
Gansu
and Xinjiang
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Chaoyang, Liaoning
Chaoyang (Chinese: 朝阳) is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. With a vast land area of almost 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi), it is by area the largest prefecture-level city in Liaoning, and borders on Hebei
Hebei
province and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the west. The area under Chaoyang's jurisdictional control is split up into two counties (Jianping, Chaoyang), two urban districts (Longcheng, Shuangta), two county-level cities (Beipiao, Lingyuan), and the Harqin Left Wing Mongolian Autonomous County. The total regional population is 3 million, while the urban centre where the government office is located has a population of 430,000 and forms the core of Chaoyang. Known as China's 'fossil city', many important paleontological discoveries have been made in Chaoyang, and the Harqin region is the oldest currently known prehistoric site in northern China
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Old Book Of Tang
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories. Originally compiled during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, it was superseded by the New Book of Tang which was compiled in the Song dynasty, but later regained acceptance.Contents1 Structure 2 History 3 References 4 Works cited 5 External linksStructure[edit] The Old Book of Tang
Old Book of Tang
comprises 200 chapters.[1] History[edit] The book began when Later Jin's founding emperor Shi Jingtang
Shi Jingtang
ordered its compilation in 941. The original chief editor was Zhao Ying (趙瑩), who was also the chancellor then
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