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Levite
A LEVITE (or LEVI) is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi
Levi
. As a surname, Levite status may be indicated by the term HaLevi, which consists of the Hebrew
Hebrew
prefix "ה" Ha- ("the") plus Levi
Levi
(Levite). The daughter of a Levite is a "Bat Levi
Levi
" (Bat being Hebrew
Hebrew
for "daughter"). In Jewish tradition, a LEVITE (/ˈliːvaɪt/ , Hebrew
Hebrew
: לֵוִי, Modern Levi, Tiberian Lēwî; "Attached") is a member of the Israelite Tribe of Levi , descended from Levi
Levi
, the third son of Jacob and Leah
Leah
. The Tribe of Levi served particular religious duties for the Israelites and had political responsibilities as well
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The TORAH (/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: תּוֹרָה‎, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism
Judaism
. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the twenty-four books of the Tanakh
Tanakh
, and it usually includes the rabbinic commentaries (perushim ). The term "Torah" means instruction and offers a way of life for those who follow it; it can mean the continued narrative from Book
Book
of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, and it can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching, culture and practice
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Reconstructionist Judaism
RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM (Hebrew : יהדות רקונסטרוציוניסטית‎, yahadút rekonstruktsyonistit, or יהדות מתחדשת‎, yahadút mitkhadéshet) is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism
Judaism
as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983). The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955 and established a rabbinical college in 1967. There is substantial theological diversity within the movement. Halakha , the collective body of Jewish Law, is not considered binding, but is treated as a valuable cultural remnant that should be upheld unless there is reason for the contrary
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Reform Judaism
REFORM JUDAISM (also known as LIBERAL JUDAISM or PROGRESSIVE JUDAISM) is a major Jewish denomination which emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai . A liberal religion , it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values. The origins of Reform Judaism
Judaism
lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Abraham Geiger and his associates; since the 1970s, the movement adopted a policy of inclusiveness and acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than strict theoretical clarity. Its greatest center today is in North America
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Conservative Judaism
CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM (known as MASORTI JUDAISM outside North America ) is a major Jewish denomination , which views Jewish Law, or Halakha , as both binding and subject to historical development. The Conservative rabbinate therefore employs modern historical-critical research, rather than only traditional methods and sources, and lends great weight to its constituency when determining its stance on matters of Law. The movement considers its approach as the authentic and most appropriate continuation of halakhic discourse, maintaining both fealty to received forms and flexibility in their interpretation. It also eschews strict theological definitions, lacking a consensus in matters of faith and allowing great pluralism
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Orthodox Judaism
ORTHODOX JUDAISM is the approach to religious Judaism
Judaism
which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation , and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah
Torah
, as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim
Amoraim
. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
includes movements such as Modern Orthodox Judaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית), Chardal , and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism
Judaism
(יהדות חרדית)
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Leah
LEAH (Hebrew : לֵאָה, Modern Le'a, Tiberian Lēʼā ISO 259-3 Leˀa; Syriac : ܠܝܐ‎ La'ya; from 𒀖 littu Akkadian for "cow" ), as described in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, was the daughter of Laban . She and her younger sister Rachel
Rachel
became the two concurrent wives of Hebrew patriarch Jacob
Jacob
. She had six sons, whose descendants became some of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. She also had a daughter, Dinah
Dinah

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Landed Tribe
In real estate , a LANDED PROPERTY or LANDED ESTATE is a property that generates income for the owner without the owner having to do the actual work of the estate. In medieval Western Europe, there were two competing systems of landed property, on one hand manoralism , inherited from the Roman villa system, where a large estate is owned by the Lord of the Manor and leased to tenants , and on the other hand the family farm or Hof owned by and heritable within a commoner family (c.f. yeoman ), inherited from Germanic law . A gentleman farmer is the largely historic term for a country gentleman who has a farm as part of his estate and farms mainly for pleasure rather than for profit. His acreage may vary from under ten to hundreds of acres. The gentleman farmer employed labourers and farm managers. However, according to the 1839 Encyclopedia of Agriculture, he "did not associate with these minor working brethren"
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") (pre-) 1967 border (Green Line ) Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition ) 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew *
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Halacha
HALAKHA (/hɑːˈlɔːxə/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: הֲלָכָה‎, Sephardic : ; also transliterated as HALACHA, HALAKHAH, HALACHAH or HALOCHO) (Ashkenazic : ) is the collective body of Jewish
Jewish
religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah
Torah
. It includes the 613 mitzvot ("commandments"), subsequent Talmudic and rabbinic law and the customs and traditions compiled in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(literally "Prepared Table", but more commonly known as the "Code of Jewish
Jewish
Law"). Judaism
Judaism
classically draws no distinction in its laws between religious and non-religious life; Jewish
Jewish
religious tradition does not distinguish clearly between religious, national, racial, or ethnic identities
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Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The BIBLE (from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía , "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; a number of Bible
Bible
canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents
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Aliyah
ALIYAH (US : /ˌæ.lɪ.ˈɑː/ , UK : /ˌɑː.li.ˈɑː/ ; Hebrew : עֲלִיָּה‎ aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews
Jews
from the diaspora to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
(Eretz Israel
Israel
in Hebrew). Also defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem —"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism
Zionism
. The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida ("descent"). The State of Israel's Law of Return
Law of Return
gives Jews
Jews
and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship
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Holocaust Theology
HOLOCAUST THEOLOGY is a body of theological and philosophical debate concerning the role of God
God
in the universe in light of the Holocaust of the late 1930s and 1940s. It is primarily found in Judaism
Judaism
; Jews were drastically affected by the Holocaust, in which six million Jews were murdered in a genocide by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and its allies. Jews were killed in higher proportions than other groups; some scholars limit the definition of the Holocaust
Holocaust
to the Jewish
Jewish
victims of the Nazis as Jews
Jews
alone were targeted for the Final Solution . Others include the additional five million non- Jewish
Jewish
victims, bringing the total to about 11 million. One third of the total worldwide Jewish population were killed during the Holocaust
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Kristallnacht
KRISTALLNACHT (German pronunciation: ; lit. "Crystal Night") or REICHSKRISTALLNACHT (German: ( listen )), also referred to as the NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS, REICHSPOGROMNACHT or simply POGROMNACHT ( listen ), and NOVEMBERPOGROME ( listen ) (Yiddish: קריסטאל נאכט), was a pogrom against Jews
Jews
throughout Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians. The German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues were smashed. Estimates of the number of fatalities caused by the pogrom have varied. Early reports estimated that 91 Jewish people were murdered during the attacks. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources by historians such as Richard J
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Rishonim
RISHONIM (Hebrew: ; Hebrew : ראשונים‎‎; sing. ראשון, Rishon, "the first ones") were the leading rabbis and poskim who lived approximately during the 11th to 15th centuries, in the era before the writing of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(Hebrew: שׁוּלחָן עָרוּך, "Set Table", a common printed code of Jewish law, 1563 CE) and following the Geonim (589-1038 CE). Rabbinic scholars subsequent to the Shulkhan Arukh are generally known as acharonim ("the latter ones"). The distinction between the rishonim and the geonim is meaningful historically; in halakha (Jewish Law) the distinction is less important. According to a widely held view in Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
, the acharonim generally cannot dispute the rulings of rabbis of previous eras unless they find support from other rabbis in previous eras
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Jewish Holidays
JEWISH HOLIDAYS, also known as JEWISH FESTIVALS or YAMIM TOVIM (ימים טובים, "Good Days", or singular יום טוב YOM TOV, in transliterated Hebrew ), are holidays observed in Judaism
Judaism
and by Jews
Jews
throughout the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
and include religious, cultural and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot ("commandments"); rabbinic mandates ; Jewish history and the history of the State of Israel
Israel
. Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian . This is because the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
is a lunisolar calendar (i.e., based on the cycles of both the sun and moon), whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar
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