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Lesser Fish Eagle
Ichthyophaga humilis The LESSER FISH EAGLE ( Haliaeetus humilis) is a species of Haliaeetus found in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, primarily in the foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
, and south-east Asia. There have been some stray reports from Gujarat
Gujarat
and Central India
India
and in more recent times from the Kaveri
Kaveri
river valley in southern India. The distribution in southern India
India
is not yet confirmed. Some taxonomic authorities place this species in the monotypic genus Ichthyophaga . Others place it in the genus Haliaeetus . Lesser fish eagles are fish-eating birds that have feet adapted to aid in gripping slippery fish
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Buteoninae
About 2 dozen, see article The BUTEONINAE are a subfamily of birds of prey which consists of medium to large, broad-winged species . They have large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs and powerful talons . They also have extremely keen eyesight to enable them to spot potential prey from a distance. This subfamily contains the buzzards (buteonine hawks) of great diversity in appearance and form and some eagle-like forms, with at least 50 species included overall in the sub-family. At one time, several types of accipitrid were grouped, including large assemblages such as booted eagles but modern studies utilizing mitochondrial DNA clarified that this sub-family was smaller than formerly classified
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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International Union For Conservation Of Nature
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Fledging
FLEDGING is the stage in a young bird 's life between hatching and flight. For altricial birds, those that spend more time in vulnerable condition in the nest , the nestling and fledging stage can be the same. For precocial birds, those that develop and leave the nest quickly, a short nestling stage precedes a longer fledging stage. All birds are considered to have fledged when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. A young bird that has recently fledged but is still dependent upon parental care and feeding is called a FLEDGLING. People often want to help fledglings, as they appear vulnerable, but it is best to leave them alone. The USA National Phenology Network defines the phenophase (or life cycle stage) of fledged young for birds as “One or more young are seen recently departed from the nest
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Cambodia
Coordinates : 13°N 105°E / 13°N 105°E / 13; 105 Kingdom of Cambodia * ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា (Khmer ) * Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa Flag Royal Arms MOTTO: ជាតិ សាសនា ព្រះមហាក្សត្រ "Nation, Religion, King" ANTHEM: Nokor Reach Majestic Kingdom Location of Cambodia
Cambodia
(green) in
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
(Indonesian ) Flag National emblem MOTTO:
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Vietnam
Coordinates : 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833 Socialist Republic of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (Vietnamese ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness" ANTHEM: Tiến Quân Ca (English: "Army March") Location of Vietnam (green) in ASEAN
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BirdLife International
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL (formerly the INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR BIRD PRESERVATION) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds , their habitats and global biodiversity , working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the world's largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organisations. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Regional work * 2.1 Member organisations * 3 Global programmes * 4 Magazine * 5 Red List * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY BirdLife International
BirdLife International
was founded as in 1922 the International Council for Bird Preservation by American ornithologists T. Gilbert Pearson and Jean Theodore Delacour . It changed its name in 1993 to "BirdLife International"
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Black-chested Buzzard-eagle
Buteo fuscescens (Vieillot, 1819) Buteo melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1819; non Vieillot, 1816: preoccupied ) Spizaetus fuscescens Vieillot, 1819 Spizaetus melanoleucus Vieillot, 1819 (non Vieillot, 1816: preoccupied ) but see text The BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE ( Geranoaetus melanoleucus) is a bird of prey of the hawk and eagle family ( Accipitridae ). It lives in open regions of South America . This species is also known as the BLACK BUZZARD-EAGLE, GREY BUZZARD-EAGLE or analogously with "eagle" or "eagle-buzzard" replacing "buzzard-eagle", or as the CHILEAN BLUE EAGLE. It is sometimes placed in the genus Buteo
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Variable Hawk
Buteo poecilochrous Gurney , 1879 Buteo polyosoma The VARIABLE HAWK (Geranoaetus polyosoma) is a polymorphic species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae . It is widespread and often common in open habitats in western and southern South America, including the Falkland Islands . Its taxonomy is disputed, with some splitting it into the widespread RED-BACKED HAWK (G. polyosoma) and the PUNA HAWK or GURNEY\'S HAWK (G. poecilochrous) of the central and north Andean highlands, but the differences between the two are unclear. Most recent authorities have supported the lumping together of the two hawks although the issue still is controversial. On the contrary, the rare taxon from the Juan Fernández Islands is relatively distinctive, and possibly worthy of species recognition as the Juan Fernández hawk (B. exsul). In this article and most current accounts, the three races are regarded as subspecies
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Red-tailed Hawk
Buteo
Buteo
borealis Buteo
Buteo
broealis (lapsus ) Falco borealis Gmelin Falco harlani Audubon The RED-TAILED HAWK ( Buteo
Buteo
jamaicensis) is a bird of prey that breeds throughout most of North America, from the interior of Alaska
Alaska
and northern Canada
Canada
to as far south as Panama
Panama
and the West Indies
West Indies
. It is one of the most common members within the genus of Buteo
Buteo
in North America or worldwide. The red-tailed hawk is one of three species colloquially known in the United States
United States
as the "chickenhawk ," though it rarely preys on standard-sized chickens. The bird is sometimes also referred to as the RED-TAIL for short, when the meaning is clear in context
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Socotra Buzzard
The SOCOTRA BUZZARD ( Buteo
Buteo
socotraensis) is a medium to large bird of prey that is sometimes considered a subspecies of the widespread common buzzard ( Buteo
Buteo
buteo). As its name implies, it is native to the island of Socotra
Socotra
, Yemen. Although it is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List, its population is considered to be stable. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Habitat and Distribution * 4 Behaviour * 4.1 Vocalizations * 4.2 Diet * 4.3 Reproduction * 5 External links * 6 References DESCRIPTIONThe Socotra
Socotra
buzzard measures 45 cm in length. Adults typically have yellow-white abdomen and breast. They display fine brown streaking on their throat and breast, with the streaking being heavier on breast, abdomen, flanks, and thighs. Certain individuals display a white throat and upper breast
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