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Leopard 2
The Leopard 2
Leopard 2
is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei
Krauss-Maffei
in the 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1
Leopard 1
as the main battle tank of the German Army. It is armed with a 120 mm smoothbore cannon, and is powered by a V-12 twin-turbo diesel engine. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany
Germany
and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations, including Canada, Chile, Indonesia, Singapore, and Turkey
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Diesel Engine
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; this is called a heterogeneous air-fuel mixture
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West Germany
West Germany
Germany
was the informal name for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland), a country in Central Europe, in the period between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War
Cold War
period, the western portion of Germany
Germany
was part of the Western Bloc. The Federal Republic was created during the Allied occupation of Germany
Germany
after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Bonn. The Cold War
Cold War
era West Germany
Germany
is unofficially historically designated the Bonn
Bonn
Republic.[3] At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs
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War In Afghanistan (2001–present)
ISAF phase (2001–14): Islamic Republic of Afghanistan[7] ISAF  United States  United Kingdom  Italy  Germany  Georgia  Jordan  Turkey  Bulgaria  Poland  Romania  Spain  Australia  Czech RepublicContinued list[a] Macedonia  Denmark  Armenia  Azerbaijan  Finland  France  Croatia  Hungary  Norway  Lithuania  Mongolia  United Arab Emirates  Belgium  Portugal  Slovakia  Netherlands  Montenegro  Latvia  Sweden  Albania  Ukraine  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Greece  Ireland  Iceland  Estonia  Malaysia  Slovenia  Austria  Bahrain  El Salvador  Luxembourg  New Zealand  South Korea  Tonga Canada  Pakistan[8]  
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Turkish Military Intervention In Syria (August 2016 – March 2017)
Turkish and FSA victory[11]Clashes erupt between Turkish-backed Syrian rebels and SDF, YPG withdraws to east of Euphrates[12] though Turkey
Turkey
disputes this[13] As of 25 February 2017, 50,000 Syrian refugees in Turkey
Turkey
have returned to the
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Vehicle Armour
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire. Such vehicles include armoured fighting vehicles like tanks, aircraft and ships. Civilian vehicles may also be armoured. These vehicles include cars used by reporters, officials and others in conflict zones or where violent crime is common, and presidential limousines. Civilian armoured cars are also routinely used by security firms to carry money or valuables to reduce the risk of highway robbery or the hijacking of the cargo. Armour
Armour
may also be used in vehicles to protect from threats other than a deliberate attack. Some spacecraft are equipped with specialised armour to protect them against impacts from micrometeoroids or fragments of space junk
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Smoothbore
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling. Smoothbores range from handheld firearms to powerful tank guns and large artillery mortars
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7.62×51mm NATO
The 7.62×51mm NATO
NATO
(official NATO
NATO
nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO
NATO
countries. It should not be confused with the similarly named Russian 7.62×54mmR
7.62×54mmR
cartridge, a slightly longer rimmed cartridge. It was introduced in U.S. service in the M14 rifle
M14 rifle
and M60 machine gun in the late 1950s. The M14 was superseded in U.S. service as the infantry adopted the 5.56×45mm
5.56×45mm
NATO
NATO
M16. However, the M14 and many other firearms that use the 7.62×51 round remain in service, especially in the case of various sniper rifles, medium machine guns such as the M240, and various rifles in use by special operations forces
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Radiator (engine Cooling)
Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine. Internal combustion engines are often cooled by circulating a liquid called engine coolant around the engine block, where it is heated, then through a radiator where it loses heat to the atmosphere, and then returned to the engine. Engine
Engine
coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil
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V12 Engine
A V12 engine
V12 engine
is a V engine
V engine
with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders each, usually but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft.[1] Since each cylinder bank is essentially a straight-six which is by itself in both primary and secondary balance, a V12 inherits perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used, and therefore it needs no balance shafts. A four-stroke 12 cylinder engine has an even firing order if cylinders fire every 60° of crankshaft rotation, so a V12 with cylinder banks at a multiples of 60° (60°, 120°, or 180°) will have even firing intervals without using split crankpins. By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible
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Twin-turbo
Twin-turbo
Twin-turbo
or biturbo refers to a turbocharged engine in which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. More specifically called "parallel twin-turbos". Other kinds of turbocharging include sequential turbocharging, and staged turbocharging. The latter is used in diesel automobile racing applications.Contents1 Parallel twin-turbo 2 Sequential
Sequential
turbos 3 Staged turbocharging 4 Advantages in diesel emissions 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksParallel twin-turbo[edit]3.5 Ford EcoBoost engine
Ford EcoBoost engine
(Twin Turbo)Paralleled twin-turbo refers to the turbocharger configuration in which two identical turbochargers function simultaneously, splitting the turbocharging duties equally. Each turbocharger is driven by half of the engine's spent exhaust energy
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German Army
General
General
Ulrich de Maizière General
General
Ernst Ferber, COMAFCENT 1973–1975 Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Jörg Schönbohm, later Undersecretary of DefenseThe German Army
Army
(German: Deutsches Heer) is the land component of the armed forces of Germany. The present-day German Army
Army
was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
together with the Marine (German Navy) and the Luftwaffe (German Air Force)
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Type 61 (tank)
The Type 61 (61式戦車, Roku-ichi Shiki sensha) was a main battle tank (MBT) developed and used by the Japan
Japan
Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), built by Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries. Development started in 1955 and the vehicle was first deployed in April 1961. The type number follows the year of deployment. A total of 560 Type 61s were manufactured between 1961 and 1975, when production ceased
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T-64
Glass-reinforced plastic
Glass-reinforced plastic
sandwiched between layers of steel
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OF-40
The OF-40 is an Italian main battle tank developed as a joint venture between OTO Melara
OTO Melara
and Fiat, and intended primarily for export sales. OTO Melara
OTO Melara
would develop and produce the hulls, and automotive components would be provided by Fiat
Fiat
(the designation of the vehicle comes from the initials of the two companies, whereas "40" refers to the planned mass of the tank).[1] Initial design work was started by OTO Melara
OTO Melara
in 1977, with the first prototypes ready by 1980.Contents1 Design1.1 Armament 1.2 Propulsion2 Sales 3 Variants3.1 Related developments4 Operators 5 Similar vehicles 6 ReferencesDesign[edit] Superficially, the OF-40 appears very similar to versions of the German Leopard 1
Leopard 1
with welded turrets (Leopard 1A3 & 1A4)
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Chieftain (tank)
The FV4201 Chieftain was the main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. It was the "most formidable main battle tank in the world" at the time of its introduction in 1966 with the most powerful main gun and most effective armour of any tank yet made.[4][not in citation given]. This was further improved while in service with Chobham armour
Chobham armour
upgrades. A development of the Centurion, the Chieftain introduced the supine (reclining backwards) driver position to British design enabling a heavily sloped hull with reduced height
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