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Leonid Kravchuk
LEONID MAKAROVYCH KRAVCHUK (Ukrainian : Леонід Макарович Кравчук; born 10 January 1934) is a former Ukrainian politician and the first President of Ukraine
President of Ukraine
, who served from 5 December 1991, until his resignation on 19 July 1994. He is also a former Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada
Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada
and People's Deputy of Ukraine
Ukraine
serving in the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine
Ukraine
(united) faction. After a political crisis involving the President and the Prime Minister, Kravchuk resigned from the Presidency, but ran for a second term as President in 1994
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Ukrainians
UKRAINIANS (Ukrainian : українці, ukrayintsi, ) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine
Ukraine
, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe
Europe
. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens. Also among historical names of the people of Ukraine, Rusyns (Ruthenians), Cossacks
Cossacks
, etc. can be found. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people. Rusyns are another related group found in western Ukraine, which are frequently referred to as being an ethnic subgroup of Ukrainians. The Rusyns are also further divided into subgroups of tribes consisiting of the Hutsuls
Hutsuls
, Boykos
Boykos
, and Lemkos
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Communist Party Of The Soviet Union
The COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION (Russian : Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза (КПСС), Kommunisticheskaya partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza), abbreviated in English as CPSU, was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union). The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet
Soviet
Union until 1990, when the Congress of People\'s Deputies modified the article of the constitution which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system. The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks (a faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party ), a revolutionary group led by Vladimir Lenin which seized power in the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Rivne Oblast
RIVNE OBLAST (Ukrainian : Рівненська область, translit. Rivnenska oblast, Polish : Obwód rówieński) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Its administrative center is Rivne . The area of the region is 20,100 km²; its population (as of 2004-05-01) is 1.2 million. Previously part of the Second Republic of Poland's Wojewódstwo Wołyńskie, the Rivne Oblast was created as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
on December 4, 1939 after the Soviet invasion and occupation of eastern Poland on 17 September 1939. Before 1992, under the policy of Russification , the region was officially known under its Russian name of ROVNO OBLAST. In the mass media it is often referred as RIVNENSHCHYNA - Ukrainian : Рівненщина. The Rivne Nuclear Power Plant is located in the oblast, near the city of Varash
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Wołyń Voivodeship (1921–1939)
Coat of arms Wołyń Voivodeship (red) on the map of Second Polish Republic CAPITAL Łuck GOVERNMENT Voivodeship VOIVODES • Mar-Jul 1921 Stanisław Jan Krzakowski • 1938-1939 Aleksander Hauke-Nowak HISTORICAL ERA Interwar period • Established 19 February 1921 • Soviet invasion 17 September 1939 AREA • 1921 30,274 km2 (11,689 sq mi) • 1939 35,754 km2 (13,805 sq mi) POPULATION • 1921 1,437,907 Density 47.5 /km2 (123 /sq mi) • 1931 2,085,600 POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS 11 powiats TODAY PART OF Ukraine
Ukraine
WOłYń VOIVODESHIP or VOLHYNIAN VOIVODESHIP (Polish : Województwo Wołyńskie, Latin : Palatinatus Volhynensis) was an administrative region of interwar Poland
Poland
(1918–1939) with an area of 35,754 km², 22 cities, and provincial capital in Łuck
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Second Polish Republic
The SECOND POLISH REPUBLIC, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland
Poland
between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the REPUBLIC OF POLAND (Polish : Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918 , in the aftermath of World War I
World War I
. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Germany , the Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, Latvia
Latvia
, Romania and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

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Kiev
KIEV (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ ) or KYIV (Ukrainian : Київ, Kyjiv ( listen ); Old East Slavic : Кыѥвъ, Kyjev; Russian : Киев, Kijev ) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine
Ukraine
, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River . The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe . Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific , educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro . The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi , one of its four legendary founders (see Name , below)
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Osadnik
OSADNIKS (Polish : osadnik/osadnicy, "settler/settlers, colonist/colonists") were veterans of the Polish Army and civilians who were given or sold state land in the Kresy (current Western Belarus and western Ukraine ) territory ceded to Poland by Polish-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 (and occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939 and ceded to it after World War II). The term is a Polish word, also a loanword used in Soviet Union . HISTORYSETTLEMENT PROCESSShortly before the battle of Warsaw on August 7, 1920, the Premier of Poland , Wincenty Witos , announced that after the war volunteers and soldiers who served on the front would have priority in purchase of state-owned land, while the soldiers to receive medals for bravery would receive land free of charge. The announcement was one of the means to repair the Polish morale, shaken after the retreat from the east
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster system
, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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Ukrainian People's Republic
The UKRAINIAN PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC or UKRAINIAN NATIONAL REPUBLIC (Ukrainian : Українська Народна Республіка, Ukrajinśka Narodna Respublika; abbreviated УНР, UNR) was a predecessor of modern UKRAINE declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution . It was initially part of the Russian Republic but proclaimed its independence on 25 January 1918. During its short existence the republic went through several political transformations from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central council with its General secretariat to the national republic, led by the Directorate and by Symon Petlyura . Between April and December 1918 the Ukrainian People's Republic did not function, having been overthrown by the Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky
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Soviet Invasion Of Poland
An INVASION is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, forcing the partition of a country, altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government, or a combination thereof. An invasion can be the cause of a war , be a part of a larger strategy to end a war, or it can constitute an entire war in itself. Due to the large scale of the operations associated with invasions, they are usually strategic in planning and execution
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin
Latin
: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary

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Ukrainian Language
UKRAINIAN /juːˈkreɪniən/ ( listen ) (українська мова ukrayins'ka mova) is an East Slavic language . It is the official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians ; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria , the other two being Romanian and Russian . Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script (see Ukrainian alphabet ). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
to the Old East Slavic of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus\' . After the fall of the Kievan Rus' as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia , the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language
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Ternopil Oblast
TERNOPIL OBLAST (Ukrainian : Тернопільська область, translit. Ternopilska oblast; also referred to as TERNOPILSHCHYNA - Ukrainian : Тернопільщина, Polish : Obwód Tarnopolski) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Its administrative center is Ternopil
Ternopil
, through which flows the Seret River , a tributary of the Dnister . One of the natural wonders of the region are its cave complexes. Although Ternopil
Ternopil
Oblast is among the smallest regions in Ukraine, over 100 caves have been discovered up to now. Scientists believe that it is only 20% of all possible caves in the region. The biggest cave is Optymistychna Cave
Optymistychna Cave

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