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Leni Riefenstahl
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (German: [ˈʁiːfn̩ʃtaːl]; 22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer. Born in 1902, Leni Riefenstahl
Leni Riefenstahl
grew up in Germany
Germany
with her brother Heinz (1905–1944), who was killed on the Eastern Front in World War II. A talented swimmer and artist, she also became interested in dancing during her childhood, taking dancing lessons and performing across Europe. After seeing a promotional poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals ("The Mountain of Destiny"), Riefenstahl was inspired to move into acting. Between 1925 and 1929, she starred in five successful motion pictures
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Berlin
Berlin
Berlin
(/bɜːrˈlɪn/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union
European Union
behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree
Spree
and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate
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The Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Eugen D'Albert
Eugen (originally Eugène) Francois Charles d'Albert (10 April 1864 – 3 March 1932) was a Scottish-born German pianist and composer. Educated in Britain, d'Albert showed early musical talent and, at the age of seventeen, he won a scholarship to study in Austria. Feeling a kinship with German culture and music, he soon emigrated to Germany, where he studied with Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
and began a career as a concert pianist. D'Albert repudiated his early training and upbringing in Scotland and considered himself German. While pursuing his career as a pianist, d'Albert focused increasingly on composing, producing 21 operas and a considerable output of piano, vocal, chamber and orchestral works. His most successful opera was Tiefland, which premiered in Prague in 1903. His successful orchestral works included his cello concerto (1899), a symphony, two string quartets and two piano concertos
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Ernst Röhm
Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (German pronunciation: [ˈɛɐ̯nst ˈʁøːm]; 28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party. As one of the members of its predecessor, the German Workers' Party, he was a close friend and early ally of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA, "Storm Battalion"), the Nazi Party's militia, and later was its commander
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Sturmabteilung
The Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA; German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊɐ̯mʔapˌtaɪlʊŋ] ( listen)), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s
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Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluːɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( listen); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) of Germany. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and one of the people most directly responsible for the Holocaust. As a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service. He studied agronomy in university, and joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1923 and the SS in 1925. In 1929, he was appointed Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
by Hitler. Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere 290-man battalion into a million-strong paramilitary group, and, following Hitler's orders, set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps
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Universal Studios
Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
(also referred to as Universal Studios or simply Universal) is an American film studio owned by Comcast
Comcast
through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal.[2] The company was founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, and Jules Brulatour, and is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fourth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé
Pathé
and Nordisk Film, and the oldest in terms of the overall film market[citation needed]
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Tay Garnett
William Taylor "Tay" Garnett (June 13, 1894 – October 3, 1977) was an American film director and writer.Contents1 Biography 2 Private life 3 Death 4 Book 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Los Angeles, California, Garnett attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and served as a naval aviator in World War I. He entered the film industry as a screenwriter in 1920, writing for Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
and Hal Roach, then joined Pathé
Pathé
and began to direct films in 1928. Among his films are One Way Passage
One Way Passage
(1932), China Seas (1935), Eternally Yours (1939), Seven Sinners (1940), Cheers for Miss Bishop (1941), The Cross of Lorraine
The Cross of Lorraine
(1943), and Bataan (1943). He is best known as the director of the 1946 thriller The Postman Always Rings Twice, starring John Garfield
John Garfield
and Lana Turner
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Venice Film Festival
The Venice
Venice
Film Festival or Venice
Venice
International Film Festival (Italian: Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice
Venice
Biennale"), founded in 1932, is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.[1][2] The film festival is part of the Venice
Venice
Biennale, which was founded by the Venetian City Council in 1895
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Reichmark
The Reichsmark
Reichsmark
(German: [ˈʁaɪçsˌmaʁk] ( listen); sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany
Germany
from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany
Germany
when it was replaced by the East German mark. The Reichsmark
Reichsmark
was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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Max Reinhardt
Max Reinhardt
Max Reinhardt
(September 9, 1873 – October 30, 1943) was an Austrian-born theatre and film director, intendant, and theatrical producer. With his innovative stage productions, he is regarded as one of the most prominent directors of German-language theatre in the early 20th century. In 1920, he established the Salzburg Festival
Salzburg Festival
with the performance of Hofmannsthal's Jedermann.Contents1 Life and career1.1 Reinhardt Theatres 1.2 Max Reinhardt
Max Reinhardt
and film2 Death 3 Tribute 4 Work on Broadway 5 Films 6 References 7 External linksLife and career[edit] Reinhardt was born Maximilian Goldmann in the spa town of Baden near Vienna, the son of Wilhelm Goldmann (1846–1911), a Jewish merchant from Stomfa, Hungary, and his wife Rosa née Wengraf (1851–1924). Having finished school, he began an apprenticeship at a bank, but already took acting lessons
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Snow White
"Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale which is today known widely across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection Grimms' Fairy Tales. It was titled in German: Sneewittchen (in modern orthography Schneewittchen) and numbered as Tale 53. The name Sneewittchen was Low German and in the first version it was translated with Schneeweißchen. The Grimms completed their final revision of the story in 1854.[1][2] The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror, the poisoned apple, the glass coffin, and the characters of the evil queen and the Seven Dwarfs. The seven dwarfs were first given individual names in the 1912 Broadway play Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
and then given different names in Walt Disney's 1937 film Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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War Crimes
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.[1] Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, perfidy, rape, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations.[2] The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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