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Lendza
The Rañjanā script (syn: Kutila, Lantsa[1]) is an abugida writing system which developed in the 11th century.[2] It is primarily used for writing the Newar language
Newar language
but is also used in Buddhist monasteries in India, China, Mongolia, and Japan.[2] It is normally written from left to right but the Kutakshar form is written from top to bottom.[2] It is also considered to be the standard Nepali calligraphic script.Contents1 Development 2 Alphabet2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants 2.3 Vowel diacritics 2.4 Num
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Abugida
An abugida /ˌɑːbʊˈɡiːdə/ (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional
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Tibetan Buddhism
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa
Kadampa
Buddhism Shambhala
Shambhala
BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuit
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Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast
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Mantra
A "mantra" (/ˈmæntrə, ˈmɑːn-, ˈmʌn-/ (Sanskrit: मन्त्र);[2]) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.[3][4] Mantra meditation helps to induce an altered state of consciousness.[5] A mantra may or may not have a syntactic structure or literal meaning.[3][6] The earliest mantras were composed in Vedic
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Om Mani Padme Hum
Oṃ
Oṃ
maṇi padme hūṃ[1] (Sanskrit: ॐ मणिपद्मे हूँ, IPA: [õːː məɳipəd̪meː ɦũː]) is the six-syllabled Sanskrit
Sanskrit
mantra particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari
Shadakshari
form of Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
(Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ Chenrezig, Chinese: 觀音 Guanyin, Japanese: 観音(かんのん) Kannon
Kannon
or Kanzeon, Mongolian: Мэгжид Жанрайсиг Migjid Janraisig), the bodhisattva of compassion. The first word Om is a sacred syllable found in Indian religions. The word Mani means "jewel" or "bead", Padme is the "lotus flower" (the Buddhist sacred flower), and Hum represents the spirit of enlightenment.[2][3] It is commonly carved onto rocks, known as mani stones, or else it is written on paper which is inserted into prayer wheels
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Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
(/ˌʌvloʊkɪˈteɪʃvərə, ˌʌvə-/ UV-loh-kih-TAY-shvər-ə, UV-ə-;[1] Sanskrit: अवलोकितेश्वर) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. This bodhisattva is variably depicted, described and is portrayed in different cultures as either female or male.[2] In Chinese Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
has become the somewhat different female figure Guanyin
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Tara (Buddhism)
Tara (Sanskrit: तारा, tārā; Tib. སྒྲོལ་མ, Dölma) or Ārya Tārā, also known as Jetsun Dölma (Tibetan language: rje btsun sgrol ma) in Tibetan Buddhism, is a female Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
in Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
who appears as a female Buddha in Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism. She is known as the "mother of liberation", and represents the virtues of success in work and achievements. She is known as Tara Bosatsu (多羅菩薩) in Japan, and occasionally as Duōluó Púsà (多羅菩薩) in Chinese Buddhism.[1] Tara is a meditation deity whose practice is used by practitioners of the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
to develop certain inner qualities and understand outer, inner and secret teachings about compassion and emptiness
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Manjusri
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means "Gentle Glory" in Sanskrit.[1] Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[2] literally "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less literally, "Prince Mañjuśrī".Contents1 In Mahāyāna Buddhism 2 Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism 3 Iconography 4 Mantras 5 In Buddhist cultures5.1 In China 5.2 In Tibet 5.3 In Nepal 5.4 In Japan 5.5 In Indonesia6 Gallery 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksIn Mahāyāna Buddhism[edit] Manjushri
Manjushri
statue
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Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
or Han Buddhism
Buddhism
has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture. The translation of a large body of Indian Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and the inclusion of these translations together with works composed in China
China
into a printed canon had far-reaching implications for the dissemination of Buddhism
Buddhism
throughout the Chinese cultural sphere, including Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
and Vietnam
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Dhāraṇī
A dhāraṇī (Devanagari: धारणी) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra.Contents1 Etymology and purpose 2 Dhāraṇīs and mantras2.1 Kūkai 2.2 Scholarship3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further readingEtymology and purpose[edit] The word dhāraṇī derives from a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
root √dhṛ meaning "to hold or maintain".[1] Ryuichi Abe and Jan Nattier suggest that a dhāraṇī is generally understood as a mnemonic which encapsulates the meaning of a section or chapter of a sutra.[2] Dhāraṇīs are also considered to protect the one who chants them from malign influences and calamities. Dhāraṇīs and mantras[edit] Kūkai[edit] The Japanese Buddhist monk Kūkai
Kūkai
drew a distinction between dhāraṇī and mantra and used it as the basis of his theory of language
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Siddhaṃ Script
U+11580–U+115FF Final Accepted Script Proposal Variant FormsSiddhaṃ, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā,[1] is a script used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
from c. 550 – c. 1200.[2] It is descended from the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
via the Gupta script and later evolved into the Assamese alphabet, the Maithili alphabet[3], the Bengali alphabet, and the Tibetan alphabet
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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Tibetan Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Four Heavenly Kings
The Four Heavenly Kings
Four Heavenly Kings
are four Buddhist gods, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world. In Chinese, they are known collectively as the "Fēng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn" (simplified Chinese: 风调雨顺; traditional Chinese: 風調雨順; literally: "Good climate") or "Sì Dà Tiānwáng" (Chinese: 四大天王; literally: "Four Great Heavenly Kings") in the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language they are called the "Chaturmaharaja" (चतुर्महाराज), or Caturmaharajikadeva: Four Great Heavenly Kings
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Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa BuddhismShambhala BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuitBuddhahood BodhisattvaKalachakraPracticesGeneration stage Completion stagePhowaTantric techniques: Fourfold division:KriyayogaCharyayogaYogatantraAnuttarayogatantraTwofold division:Inner TantrasOuter TantrasThought forms and visualisation:MandalaMantraMudraThangkaYantraYoga:Deity yogaDream yogaDeath yogaNgöndro Guru
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