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Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis
is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type.[2] It is spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies.[2] The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis.[2] The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and en
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Urbanization
Urbanization
Urbanization
refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change.[1] It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas.[2] The United Nations
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Leprosy
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae
or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.[3][4] Initially, infections are without symptoms and typically remain this way for 5 to 20 years.[3] Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes.[3] This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds.[2] Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present.[2]
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Scar
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury. Scars result from the biological process of wound repair in the skin, as well as in other organs and tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound (e.g., after accident, disease, or surgery) results in some degree of scarring. An exception to this are animals with complete regeneration, which regrow tissue without scar formation. Scar
Scar
tissue is composed of the same protein (collagen) as the tissue that it replaces, but the fiber composition of the protein is different; instead of a random basketweave formation of the collagen fibers found in normal tissue, in fibrosis the collagen cross-links and forms a pronounced alignment in a single direction.[1] This collagen scar tissue alignment is usually of inferior functional quality to the normal collagen randomised alignment
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Central America
Central America
Central America
(Spanish: América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
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Spleen
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates. Similar in structure to a large lymph node, it acts primarily as a blood filter. The word spleen comes from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σπλήν (splḗn).[1] The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system.[2] It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood, which can be valuable in case of hemorrhagic shock, and also recycles iron. As a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system, it metabolizes hemoglobin removed from senescent red blood cells (erythrocytes). The globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to its constitutive amino acids, and the heme portion is metabolized to bilirubin, which is removed in the liver.[3] The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation
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Liver
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile
Bile
aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948 headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO
WHO
is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations. The constitution of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
had been signed by 61 countries on 7 April 1948, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d'Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations
League of Nations
Health Organization. Since its creation, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox
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Anemia
Anemia
Anemia
is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood,[3][4] or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.[5] When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise.[1] Anemia
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Fluconazole
Fluconazole
Fluconazole
is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.[1] This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis versicolor.[1] It is also used to prevent candidiasis in those who are at high risk such as following organ transplantation, low birth weight babies, and those with low blood neutrophil counts.[1] It is given either by mouth or by injection into a vein.[1] Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and increased liver enzymes.[1] Serious side effects may include liver problems, QT prolongation, and seizures
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Phagocytosis
In cell biology, phagocytosis (from Ancient Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) , meaning 'to devour', κύτος, (kytos) , meaning 'cell', and -osis, meaning 'process') is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome. It is distinct from other forms of endocytosis like pinocytosis that involves the internalization of extracellular liquids. Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis
is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax. In an organism's immune system, phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris
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Amastigote
An amastigote is a protist cell that does not have visible external flagella or cilia. The term is used mainly to describe an intracellular phase in the life-cycle of trypanosomes. It is also called the leishmanial stage, since in Leishmania
Leishmania
it is the form the parasite takes in the vertebrate host, but occurs in all trypanosome genera. References[edit]^ Kahn, S; Wleklinski, M; Aruffo, A; Farr, A; Coder, D; Kahn, M (1995). "Trypanosoma cruzi amastigote adhesion to macrophages is facilitated by the mannose receptor". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 182 (3): 1243–1258. doi:10.1084/jem.182.5.1243. PMC 2192192 . PMID 7595195. This biology article is a stub
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Deforestation
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.[2] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.[3] About 30 percent of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.[4] Deforestation
Deforestation
occurs for multiple reasons: trees are cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation
Deforestation
has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces
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