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Legio VII Claudia
Legio septima Claudia (Claudius' Seventh Legion) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. Its emblem, like that of all Caesar's legions, was the bull, together with the lion.[citation needed] The Seventh, the Sixth, the Eighth and the Ninth were all founded by Pompey
Pompey
in Spain in 65 BC.[1] With the Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth legions, the Seventh was among the oldest units in the imperial Roman army. They were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
around 58 BC by Julius Caesar,[citation needed] and marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars. The Roman commander mentions the Seventh in his account of the battle against the Nervians, and it seems that it was employed during the expedition through western Gaul led by Caesar's deputy Crassus
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Hadrian
Hadrian
Hadrian
(/ˈheɪdriən/; Latin: Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 117 to 138.[note 1] He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus, probably at Italica, near Santiponce
Santiponce
(in modern-day Spain), into a Hispano-Roman family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His father was a maternal first cousin of the emperor Trajan. Some years before Hadrian's accession, he married Trajan's grand-niece, Vibia Sabina. Trajan's wife and Empress, Pompeia Plotina, and his close friend and adviser Licinius Sura, were well disposed towards Hadrian
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Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
Gaul
(Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata,[1] was the part of Italy
Italy
inhabited by Celts
Celts
(Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province
Roman province
from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy.[2] Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul, precisely that part of Gaul
Gaul
on the "hither side of the Alps" (from the perspective of the Romans), as opposed to Transalpine Gaul
Gaul
("on the far side of the Alps").[3] Gallia Cisalpina was further subdivided into Gallia Cispadana and Gallia Transpadana, i.e. its portions south and north of the Po River, respectively
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Danube
The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries
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Trajan
Trajan
Trajan
(/ˈtreɪdʒən/; Latin: Imperator Caesar Nerva
Nerva
Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus;[1][2] 18 September 53 – 8 August 117 AD) was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 98 to 117 AD. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("the best ruler"), Trajan
Trajan
is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death
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Battle Of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus
Pharsalus
was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus
Pharsalus
in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (" Pompey
Pompey
the Great"). Pompey
Pompey
had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. The two armies confronted each other over several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey
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Alesia (city)
Alesia was the capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gallic tribes allied with the Aedui. The Celtic oppidum was conquered by Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
and afterwards became a Gallo-Roman town. Its location was controversial for a long time. It is today considered to have been located on Mont-Auxois, near Alise-Sainte-Reine
Alise-Sainte-Reine
in Burgundy, France.Contents1 History1.1 Battle of Alesia 1.2 Roman vicus2 Geography and location2.1 Alternative theories on Alesia’s location3 Reception 4 Today 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Battle of Alesia[edit] Main article: Battle of Alesia Alesia is best known for being the site of the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC that marked the defeat of the Gauls
Gauls
under Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
by the Romans under Julius Caesar
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Lutetia
Coordinates: 48°51′N 2°21′E / 48.85°N 2.35°E / 48.85; 2.35A map of Gaul
Gaul
in the 1st century BC, showing the location of Lutetia and relative positions of the Celtic tribes.The Gallo-Roman
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Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
(/ˈkræsəs/;[2] c. 115–53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
into the Roman Empire. Crassus began his public career as a military commander under Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Sulla
during his civil war. Following Sulla's assumption of the dictatorship, Crassus amassed an enormous fortune through real estate speculation. Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the consulship with his rival Pompey
Pompey
the Great. A political and financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined Caesar and Pompey
Pompey
in the unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Together the three men dominated the Roman political system
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Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] usually called Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin
Latin
prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
(/ˌvɜːrsɪnˈdʒɛtərɪks/ VUR-sin-JET-ə-riks or /ˌvɜːrsɪŋˈɡɛtərɪks/ VUR-sing-GET-ə-riks; Latin pronunciation: [wɛrkɪŋˈɡɛtɔrɪks]; c. 82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni
Arverni
tribe; he united the Gauls
Gauls
in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
was the son of Celtillus the Avernian, leader of the Gallic tribes. Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
came to power after his formal designation as chieftain of the Arverni
Arverni
at the oppidum Gergovia
Gergovia
in 52 BC. He immediately established an alliance with other Gallic tribes, took command and combined all forces, and led them in the Celts' most significant revolt against Roman power
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Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus[2] (Classical Latin: [ˈgnae̯.ʊs pɔmˈpɛj.jʊs ˈmaŋ.nʊs]; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC),[1] usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey
Pompey
the Great,[3] was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's second civil war resulted in Sulla
Sulla
bestowing the nickname Magnus, "the Great", upon him
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Moesia Superior
Moesia
Moesia
(/ˈmiːʃə, -siə, -ʒə/;[1][2] Latin: Moesia; Greek: Μοισία, Moisía)[3] was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River
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Imperial Roman Army
The Imperial Roman army
Roman army
are the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from about 30 BC to 476 AD.[1] This period is sometimes split into the Principate
Principate
(30 BC – 284 AD) and Dominate (285–476) periods. Main article: Roman army Under Augustus
Augustus
(ruled 30 BC – 14 AD), the army consisted of legions, eventually auxilia and also numeri.[2]Legions were formations numbering about 5,000 heavy infantry recruited from the ranks of Roman citizens
Roman citizens
only, transformed from earlier mixed conscript and volunteer soldiers serving an average of 10 years, to all-volunteer units of long-term professionals serving a standard 25-year term
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Roman Legion
A Roman legion
Roman legion
(from Latin
Latin
legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was the largest unit of the Roman army, evolving from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts (about 5,000 men) made up a Roman Legion
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Gallic Wars
300,000+ fighting men (mainly irregulars)Casualties and losses30,000+ killed, 10,000+ woundedAbout 1,000,000 according to Caesar which mainly includes civilians killed. Modern estimates are significantly lower, but still in several hundreds of thousandsv t eGallic WarsMagetobriga (63 BC) Arar (58 BC) Bibracte
Bibracte
(58 BC) Vosges (58 BC) Axona (57 BC) Sabis (57 BC) Atuatuci (57 BC) Octodurus (57–56 BC) Ambiorix's revolt
Ambiorix's revolt
(54–53 BC) Avaricum
Avaricum
(52 BC) Gergovia
Gergovia
(52 BC) Lutetia (52 BC) Alesia (52 BC) Uxellodunum (51 BC)The Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
against several Gallic tribes
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