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Legge Romanization
Legge romanization is a transcription system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th century sinologist James Legge. It was replaced by the Wade–Giles system, which itself has been mostly supplanted by Pinyin. The Legge system is still to be found in Legge's widely available translation of the Yijing, and in some derivative works such as Aleister Crowley's version of the Yijing
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Romanization Of Chinese
The Romanization
Romanization
of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys."[1] However, Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
has become the international standard since 1982. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles and Yale Romanization. There are many uses for Chinese Romanization. Most broadly, it is used to provide a useful way for foreigners who are not skilled at recognizing Chinese script a means to read and recognize Chinese names. Apart from this general role, it serves as a useful tool for foreign learners of Chinese by indicating the pronunciation of unfamiliar characters
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Amoy Dialect
The Amoy
Amoy
dialect or Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect (Chinese: 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as Amoynese, Amoy
Amoy
Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen
Xiamen
Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province
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Meyer–Wempe
Meyer–Wempe romanization was the system used by two Roman Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernard F. Meyer
Bernard F. Meyer
and Theodore F
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Sidney Lau Romanisation
Sidney Lau romanisation is a system of romanisation for Cantonese
Cantonese
that was developed in the 1970s by Sidney Lau for teaching Cantonese
Cantonese
to Hong Kong Government expatriates. It is based on the Hong Kong Government's Standard Romanisation which was the result of the work of James D. Ball and Ernst J
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S. L. Wong (phonetic Symbols)
Wong Shik Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a scheme of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton. The scheme has been widely used in Chinese dictionaries published in Hong Kong. The scheme, known as S. L. Wong system (黃錫凌式), is a broad phonemic transcription system based on IPA and its analysis of Cantonese
Cantonese
phonemes is grounded in the theories of Y. R. Chao. Other than the phonemic transcription system, Wong also derived a romanisation scheme published in the same book. See S. L
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S. L. Wong (romanisation)
Wong Shik-Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a romanisation scheme accompanying a set of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton.Contents1 Phonology1.1 Finals1.1.1 Vowels 1.1.2 Falling diphthong finals 1.1.3 Nasal phoneme finals 1.1.4 Plosive phoneme finals 1.1.5 Nasal consonantoids fully voiced finals1.2 Initials 1.3 Tones2 See also 3 References 4 External linksPhonology[edit] Cantonese, like a number of other varieties of Chinese is monosyllabic
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Cantonese Pinyin
Cantonese
Cantonese
Pinyin
Pinyin
(Chinese: 常用字廣州話讀音表:拼音方案, also known as 教院式拼音方案) is a romanization system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by Rev. Yu Ping Chiu (余秉昭) in 1971,[1][2] and subsequently modified by the Education Department (merged into the Education and Manpower Bureau
Education and Manpower Bureau
since 2003) of Hong Kong and Prof. Zhan Bohui (詹伯慧) of the Chinese Dialects Research Centre of the Jinan University, Guangdong, PRC, and honorary professor of the School of Chinese, University of Hong Kong
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Standard Romanization (Cantonese)
Standard Romanization
Romanization
is a romanization system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by Christian missionaries in South China in 1888, particularly relying upon the work of John Morrison Chalmers.[1]:82 By 1914, it had become well established in Canton and Hong Kong (there being no other
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Barnett–Chao
The Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation system known as Barnett–Chao (abbreviated here as B–C) is based on the principles of the Gwoyeu Romatzyh system (GR) developed by Chao Yuenren in the 1920s, which he modified in 1947.[1] The B-C system is a modification in 1950 by K M A Barnett[2] (an Administrative Officer of the Hong Kong Government)[3] which was adopted by the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. Barnett-Chao was used in the Chinese Language Training Section (for
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Comparison Of Cantonese Romanization Systems
The chart below shows the difference between S. L. Wong (romanization), Guangdong Romanization, Cantonese
Cantonese
Pinyin, Jyutping, Yale, Sidney Lau, Meyer–Wempe and New-French Latinization of Cantonese, With IPA and S. L. Wong phonetic symbols and Bopomofo Extended.Contents1 Chart1.1 Initials 1.2 Finals 1.3 TonesChart[edit] Initials[edit]  IPA S. L. Wong Phonetic Symbols Bopomofo Extended S
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Taiwanese Hokkien
[tai˧˩ g̃i˥˩] / [tai˧˩ g̃u˥˩] (coastal) [tai˧˧ g̃i˥˩] / [tai˧˧ g̃u˥˩] (inland)Native to TaiwanNative speakers15 million (1997)[1]Language familySino-TibetanChineseMinSouthern MinQuanzhangTaiwanese HokkienWriting systemLatin (pe̍h-ōe-jī), Han characters
Han characters
(traditional)Official statusOfficial language inNone, de facto status in Taiwan
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation
The Hong Kong Government uses an unpublished system of Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
for public purposes which is based on the 1888 standard described by Roy T Cowles in 1914 as Standard Romanisation.[1]:iv The primary need for Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
by the Hong Kong Government is in the assigning of names to new streets and places
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Modern Literal Taiwanese
Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT), also known as Modern Taiwanese Language (MTL), is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese based on the Taiwanese Modern Spelling System (TMSS)
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