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Leatherback Turtle
The LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE ( Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the LUTE TURTLE or LEATHERY TURTLE or simply the LUTH , is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians . It is the only living species in the genus DERMOCHELYS and family DERMOCHELYIDAE. It can easily be differentiated from other modern sea turtles by its lack of a bony shell , hence the name. Instead, its carapace is covered by skin and oily flesh. Dermochelys is the only extant genus of the family Dermochelyidae
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Exoskeleton
An EXOSKELETON (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton" ) is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton ) of, for example, a human . In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "SHELLS ". Examples of animals with exoskeletons include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches , and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters . The shells of certain sponges and the various groups of shelled molluscs, including those of snails , clams , tusk shells , chitons and nautilus , are also exoskeletons. Some animals, such as the tortoise , have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton
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Carapace
A CARAPACE is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods , such as crustaceans and arachnids , as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises. In turtles and tortoises, the underside is called the plastron . CONTENTS * 1 Crustaceans * 2 Arachnida * 3 Turtles and tortoises * 4 References CRUSTACEANS The molted carapace of a lady crab from Long Beach, New York . In crustaceans , the carapace functions as a protective cover over the cephalothorax. Where it projects forward beyond the eyes, this projection is called a rostrum . The carapace is calcified to varying degrees in different crustaceans. Zooplankton
Zooplankton
within the phylum Crustacea also have a carapace. These include Cladocera , ostracods , and isopods , but isopods only have a developed "cephalic shield" carapace covering the head
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Monotypic Taxon
In biology , a MONOTYPIC TAXON is a taxonomic group (taxon ) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon. Although the phrase appears to indicate that a taxon has a single type specimen (with no syntypes , lectotypes , or other types) and no heterotypic/junior synonyms , that is not the usage. A monotypic species is one that does not include subspecies or smaller, infraspecific taxa. In the case of genera, the term "unispecific" is sometimes preferred. In botanical nomenclature , a MONOTYPIC GENUS is a genus in the special case where a genus and a single species are simultaneously described. In contrast an OLIGOTYPIC TAXON contains more than one but only a very few subordinate taxa. EXAMPLESJust as the term monotypic is used to describe a large taxon including only one subdivision, one can also refer to the contained taxon as monotypic within the larger taxon, e.g. a genus monotypic within a family
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Crocodilia
The CROCODILIA (or CROCODYLIA) is an order of mostly large, predatory , semiaquatic reptiles , known as CROCODILIANS. They first appeared 83.5 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous period ( Campanian
Campanian
stage) and are the closest living relatives of birds , as the two groups are the only known survivors of the Archosauria . Members of the order's total group , the clade Pseudosuchia
Pseudosuchia
, appeared about 250 million years ago in the Early Triassic
Triassic
period, and diversified during the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The order Crocodilia
Crocodilia
includes the true crocodiles (family Crocodylidae ), the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae ), and the gharial and false gharial (family Gavialidae )
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Nomen Nudum
The phrase NOMEN NUDUM (plural NOMINA NUDA) is a Latin term, meaning "naked name", used in taxonomy (especially in zoological and botanical nomenclature ). It may or may not be written in italics, depending on style. The term is used to indicate a designation which looks exactly like a scientific name of an organism, and may have originally been intended to be a scientific name, but fails to be one because it has not (or has not yet) been published with an adequate description (or a reference to such a description), and thus is a "bare" or "naked" name, one which cannot be accepted as it currently stands. Because a nomen nudum fails to qualify as a formal scientific name, a later author can publish a real scientific name that is identical in spelling
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the SPECIFIC NAME or SPECIFIC EPITHET – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
rex is probably the most widely known binomial
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Domenico Vandelli
DOMENICO AGOSTINO VANDELLI ( Padua
Padua
, 8 July 1735 – Lisbon
Lisbon
, 27 June 1816) was an Italian naturalist , who did most of his scientific work in Portugal. He studied at the University of Padua
Padua
, from which he received a doctorate in Natural Philosophy and Medicine in 1756. While active as naturalist in Italy
Italy
he began a correspondence with the Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné
Carl von Linné
, which continued for several years. In 1763 he was invited by Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
of Russia to join the faculty of the University of St. Petersburg , but he declined. In 1764 Vandelli moved to Portugal
Portugal
, where in 1765 he was appointed lecturer in chemistry and natural sciences at the University of Coimbra
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Ex Errore
This is a list of terms and symbols used in scientific names for organisms, and in describing the names. For proper parts of the names themselves, see glossary of scientific names . Note that many of the abbreviations are used with or without a stop
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Extant Taxon
NEONTOLOGY is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology , deals with living or recently extinct organisms . It is the study of living species , genera , families and other taxa with members still alive, as opposed to being all dead or extinct . For example, the moose is an extant species, while the Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
is a long extinct one. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods , as of 1987 , there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species. A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as existing if there are new discoveries of living species ("Lazarus species" ), or if previously-known existing species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Natural History
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic
Arabic
world , through to European Renaissance
Renaissance
naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences
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Samuel Garman
SAMUEL WALTON GARMAN (June 5, 1843 – September 30, 1927), or "Garmann" as he sometimes styled himself, was a naturalist /zoologist from Pennsylvania. He became noted as an ichthyologist and herpetologist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Personal * 3 Publications (selected) * 4 Notes * 5 References BIOGRAPHYGarman was born in Indiana County, Pennsylvania
Indiana County, Pennsylvania
, on 5 June 1843. In 1868 he joined an expedition to the American West with John Wesley Powell . He graduated from the Illinois State Normal University in 1870, and for the following year was principal of the Mississippi State Normal School . In 1871, he became professor of natural sciences in Ferry Hall Seminary, Lake Forest, Illinois
Lake Forest, Illinois
, and a year later became a special pupil of Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz

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Mercury (mythology)
MERCURY (/ˈmɜːrkjᵿri/ ; Latin
Latin
: Mercurius listen (help ·info )) is a major Roman god, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon . He is the patron god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence (and thus poetry), messages/communication (including divination), travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves; he is also the guide of souls to the underworld. He was considered the son of Maia and Jupiter in Roman mythology
Roman mythology
. His name is possibly related to the Latin
Latin
word merx ("merchandise"; cf. merchant, commerce, etc.), mercari (to trade), and merces (wages); another possible connection is the Proto-Indo-European root merĝ- for "boundary, border" (cf
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