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Leather
Leather
Leather
is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry. Leather
Leather
is used to make various goods, including clothing (especially footwear), in bookbinding, and as a furniture covering
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Tumble Finishing
Tumble finishing, also known as tumbling or rumbling,[1] is a technique for smoothing and polishing a rough surface on relatively small parts. In the field of metalworking, a similar process called barreling, or barrel finishing,[2] works upon the same principles. This process is very similar to the natural processes that produce "sea glass" or "beach glass".Contents1 Stone 2 Metal2.1 Specific types3 Glass 4 Other 5 See also 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 BibliographyStone[edit]Tumbled gemstones. (Note that four of the items in the picture are not tumbled)For tumbling of rocks as a lapidary technique, a plastic or rubber-lined barrel is loaded with a consignment of rocks, all of similar or the same hardness, some abrasive grit, and a liquid lubricant. Silicon carbide
Silicon carbide
grit is commonly used, and water is a universal lubricant. The barrel is then placed upon slowly rotating rails so that it rotates
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Oxazolidine
An oxazolidine is a five-membered ring compound consisting of three carbons, a nitrogen, and an oxygen. The oxygen and NH are the 1 and 3 positions, respectively. In oxazolidine derivatives, there is always a carbon between the oxygen and the nitrogen (or it would be an isoxazolidine).[1][2] All of the carbons in oxazolidines are reduced (compare to oxazole and oxazoline). Some of their derivatives, the oxazolidinediones, are used as anticonvulsants. Oxazolidines were first synthesized over 100 years ago.[3]Contents1 Dioxooxazolidines 2 Bisoxazolidines 3 Isoxazolidines 4 See also 5 ReferencesDioxooxazolidines[edit] Oxazolidines where the carbon centers at the 1 and 3 positions are carbonyls are called dioxooxazolidines
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Vegetable Matter
Biomass
Biomass
is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. Burning biomass releases carbon emissions, but has been classed as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks, because plant stocks can be replaced with new growth.[1] It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation without wasting existing generating plant and infrastructure. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass.[2] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical
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Chromium (III) Sulfate
716.45 g/mol (octadecahydrate)Appearance reddish-brown crystals (anhydrous), purple crystals (hydrated)Density 3.10 g/cm3 (anhydrous) 1.86 g/cm3 (pentadecahydrate) 1.709 g/cm3 (octadecahydrate)Melting point 90 °CBoiling point >700 °C (decomposes to chromic acid) Solubility
Solubility
in waterinsoluble (anhydrous) soluble (hydrated)Solubility soluble in alcohol practically insoluble in acid
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Deerskin (novel)
Deerskin is a dark fantasy novel by Robin McKinley, first published in 1993.[1] It is based on an old French fairy tale by Charles Perrault called Peau d'âne (English translation: Donkeyskin).[2] It was nominated for the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for Adult Literature.[3] The book contains numerous adult themes including incest, rape, and miscarriage. It features McKinley's typical protagonist, the resourceful heroine overcoming psychological trauma, and her favored motif of the animal helper.[4]Contents1 Plot summary 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksPlot summary[edit] Although Lissar is the daughter of the most beautiful queen and most handsome king in all the land, she is a lonely child whose only true companion is her dog, Ash. She was mostly ignored during her childhood due to the fact that her parents were the two most splendid people in all the seven kingdoms. Lissar's mother falls ill and starts to lose her beauty
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Glaze (painting Technique)
A glaze is a thin transparent or semi-transparent layer on a painting which modifies the appearance of the underlying paint layer. Glazes can change the chroma, value, hue and texture of a surface. Glazes consist of a great amount of binding medium in relation to a very small amount of pigment.[1] Drying time will depend on the amount and type of paint medium used in the glaze. The medium, base, or vehicle is the mixture to which the dry pigment is added. Different media can increase or decrease the rate at which oil paints dry. Often, because a paint is too opaque, painters will add special media or a lot of medium to the paint to make them more transparent for the purposes of glazing. While these media are usually liquids, there are solid and semi-solid media used in the making of paints as well
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Dyeing
Dyeing
Dyeing
is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.[1] Dyeing
Dyeing
is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. There are mainly two classes of dye, natural and man-made. The primary source of dye, historically, has generally been nature, with the dyes being extracted from animals or plants. Since the mid-19th century, however, humans have produced artificial dyes to achieve a broader range of colors and to render the dyes more stable to resist washing and general use
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Shrinkage (fabric)
Shrinkage is the process in which a fabric becomes smaller than its original size, usually through the process of laundry. Novice users of modern laundry machines sometimes experience accidental shrinkage of garments, especially when applying heat. Others may intentionally shrink a garment to their size. Some may purchase a garment one or more sizes larger in anticipation of shrinkage. Causes[edit] For wool garments, shrinkage is due to scales on the fibers which heat, water and agitation cause to stick together. Other fabrics are stretched by mechanical forces during production, and can shrink slightly when heated (though to a lesser degree than wool)
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Pickling
Pickling
Pickling
is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. The resulting food is called a pickle, or, to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with the adjective pickled. The pickling procedure will typically affect the food's texture and flavor. In East Asia, vinaigrette (vegetable oil and vinegar) is also used as a pickling medium. Foods that are pickled include meats, fruits, eggs, and vegetables.[1] Another distinguishing characteristic is a pH of 4.6 or lower,[2] which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling
Pickling
can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
herbs and spices, such as mustard seed, garlic, cinnamon or cloves, are often added.[3] If the food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced simply by adding dry salt
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Wax
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids, typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar solvents
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Degreasing
Degreasing, often called defatting or fat trimming, is the removal of fatty acids from an object. In culinary science, degreasing is done with the intention of reducing the fat content of a meal.Contents1 Degreasing
Degreasing
food1.1 Degreasing
Degreasing
of a meal during preparation 1.2 Degreasing
Degreasing
liquids 1.3 Degreasing
Degreasing
solid food items2 Commercial degreasing 3 Solvent
Solvent
degreasing 4 References 5 External links Degreasing
Degreasing
food[edit] Degreasing
Degreasing
is often used by dieters, particularly those following low-fat diets to reduce their fat consumption to induce weight loss. The energy content of 1 g of fat is 9 calories, while that of carbohydrates and proteins are 4 calories
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Armor
Armour
Armour
( British English
British English
or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or action (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour
Personal armour
is used to protect soldiers and war animals. Vehicle armour is used on warships and armoured fighting vehicles. A second use of the term armour describes armoured forces, armoured weapons, and their role in combat
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Formaldehyde
Butyraldehyde Decanal Heptanal Hexanal Nonanal Octadecanal Octanal Pentanal PropionaldehydeRelated compoundsmethanol formic acidExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).Y verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
(systematic name methanal), is a naturally occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O (H-CHO). It is the simplest of the aldehydes (R-CHO). The common name of this substance comes from its similarity and relation to formic acid. Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
is an important precursor to many other materials and chemical compounds
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Cottage Industry
The putting-out system is a means of subcontracting work. Historically, it was also known as the workshop system and the domestic system. In putting-out, work is contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who complete the work in off-site facilities, either in their own homes or in workshops with multiple craftsmen. It was used in the English and American textile industries, in shoemaking, lock-making trades, and making parts for small firearms from the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
until the mid-19th century; however, after the invention of the sewing machine in 1846, the system lingered on for the making of ready-made men's clothing.[1] The domestic system was suited to pre-urban times because workers did not have to travel from home to work, which was quite impracticable due to the state of roads and footpaths, and members of the household spent many hours in farm or household tasks
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