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Lazaro Spallanzani
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Lazzaro Spallanzani
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈladdzaro spallanˈtsaːni]; 10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation. His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory (the idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves), though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur.Contents1 Career 2 Discoveries 3 Spallanzani and the fossils 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCareer[edit] Spallanzani was born in Scandiano
Scandiano
in the modern province of Reggio Emilia and died in Pavia, Italy. He was educated at the Jesuit College and started to study law at the University of Bologna, which he gave up soon and turned to science
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Spallanzani (other)
Spallanzani may refer to:Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799), an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist; and things named for him:Spallanzani (lunar crater) Spallanzani (Martian crater) Spallanzani Point, Antarctica 10350 Spallanzani, a main belt asteroidMarco Spallanzani, a teacher of economic history at the University of FlorenceDisambiguation page providing links to articles with similar titles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Spallanzani. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ lwi ləklɛʁ kɔ̃t də byfɔ̃]; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
and Georges Cuvier
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Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden
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University Of Padua
The University of Padua
Padua
(Italian: Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university[1] located in the city of Padua, Italy. The University of Padua
Padua
was founded in 1222 as a school of law and was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe.[2] Padua
Padua
is the second-oldest university in Italy
Italy
and the world's fifth-oldest surviving university
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Heybeliada
Heybeliada
Heybeliada
or Heybeli Ada (Greek: Χάλκη, Halki) is the second largest of the Prince Islands
Prince Islands
in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul. It is officially a neighborhood in the Adalar
Adalar
district of Istanbul, Turkey. The large Naval Cadet School overlooks the jetty to the left as you get off the ferry or seabus. There are two interesting pieces of architecture on the grounds of the school. One is Kamariotissa, the only remaining Byzantine church on the island, and more importantly the last church to be built before the conquest of Constantinople. The other is the grave of Edward Barton, the second English Ambassador to be sent to Constantinople
Constantinople
by Elizabeth I of England, who spent his last days in Heybeli in order to escape the plague raging through the city in 1598
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Büyükada
Büyükada
Büyükada
(meaning "Big Island" in Turkish; Greek: Πρίγκηπος or Πρίγκιπος, rendered Prinkipos or Prinkipo; and alternatively Πρίγκηψ or Πρίγκιψ meaning "Prince" or "Foremost") is the largest of the nine so-called Princes' Islands
Princes' Islands
in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul, with an area of about 2 square miles (5 km2). It is officially a neighbourhood in the Adalar (Islands) district of Istanbul
Istanbul
Province, Turkey.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Today 4 Places of interest 5 References 6 External linksGeography[edit] Büyükada
Büyükada
consists of two peaks. The one nearest to the ferry landing, İsa Tepesi (meaning Jesus Hill in Turkish), formerly Hristos (Χριστός, the Greek name for Jesus Christ), is topped by the former Greek orphanage, a huge wooden building now in decay
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and her husband, Emperor Francis I, and the brother of Marie Antoinette. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes
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Vesuvius
25,000 years before present to 1944 age of volcano = c. 17,000 years to presentMountain type Somma-stratovolcanoVolcanic arc/belt Campanian volcanic arcLast eruption March 17–23, 1944ClimbingEasiest route Walk Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
( /vɪˈsuːviəs/; Italian: Monte Vesuvio [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo]; Neapolitan: Vesuvio; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources)[1] is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples
Gulf of Naples
in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples
Naples
and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc
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Lipari Islands
The Aeolian Islands
Aeolian Islands
(/iːˈoʊliən/) (Italian: Isole Eolie, pronounced [ˈiːzole eˈɔːlje], Sicilian: Ìsuli Eoli, Greek: Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.[1] The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian: Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands
Aeolian Islands
are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. The largest island is Lipari
Lipari
and the islands are sometimes referred to as the Lipari
Lipari
Islands or Lipari
Lipari
group
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Sicily
Sicily
Sicily
(/ˈsɪsɪli/ SISS-i-lee; Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja], Sicilian: Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous region of Italy, in Southern Italy
Italy
along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe,[4] and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high
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Lavoisier
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
after the French Revolution; French: [ɑ̃twan lɔʁɑ̃ də lavwazje]; 26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794)[1] was a French nobleman
French nobleman
and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.[2] He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry".[3][4] It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature
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Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea
Sea
is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water
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Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (/voʊlˈtɛər/;[1] French: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Christianity
Christianity
as a whole and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state. Voltaire
Voltaire
was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.[2] He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time
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