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Lazaro Spallanzani
LAZZARO SPALLANZANI (Italian pronunciation: ; 10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation . His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory (the idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves), though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur . CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Discoveries * 3 Spallanzani and the fossils * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CAREERSpallanzani was born in Scandiano in the modern province of Reggio Emilia and died in Pavia
Pavia
, Italy. He was educated at the Jesuit College and started to study law at the University of Bologna
University of Bologna
, which he gave up soon and turned to science
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Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
JOSEPH II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and her husband, Emperor Francis I , and was the brother of Marie Antoinette . He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine , styled Habsburg-Lorraine . Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism ; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes
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Vienna
VIENNA (/viˈɛnə/ ( listen ); German : Wien, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria
Austria
. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city , with a population of about 1.8 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area , nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural , economic , and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
European Union
. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I
World War I
, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin
Berlin

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Vesuvius
25,000 years before present to 1944 age of volcano = c. 17,000 years to present MOUNTAIN TYPE Somma -stratovolcano VOLCANIC ARC /BELT Campanian volcanic arc LAST ERUPTION March 17–23, 1944 CLIMBING EASIEST ROUTE WalkMOUNT VESUVIUS ( /vᵻˈsuːviəs/ ; Italian : Monte Vesuvio ; Neapolitan : Vesuvio; Latin : Mons Vesuvius ; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma -stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania
Campania
, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples
Naples
and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc . Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure
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Lipari Islands
The AEOLIAN ISLANDS (/iːˈoʊliən/ ) (Italian : Isole Eolie, pronounced , Sicilian : Ìsuli Eoli, Greek : Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily
Sicily
, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus . The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian : Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands
Aeolian Islands
are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. The largest island is Lipari
Lipari
and the islands are sometimes referred to as the LIPARI ISLANDS or LIPARI GROUP. The other islands include Vulcano
Vulcano
, Salina , Stromboli
Stromboli
, Filicudi , Alicudi , Panarea and Basiluzzo
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Sicily
SICILY (/ˈsɪsɪli/ SISS-i-lee ; Italian : Sicilia , Sicilian : Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. It is an autonomous region of Italy
Italy
, in Southern Italy
Italy
along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina
Messina
. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna , the tallest active volcano in Europe, and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC
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Büyükada
BüYüKADA (meaning "Big Island" in Turkish ; Greek : Πρίγκηπος or Πρίγκιπος, rendered Prinkipos or Prinkipo; and alternatively Πρίγκηψ or Πρίγκιψ meaning "Prince" or "Foremost") is the largest of the nine so-called Princes\' Islands in the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, near Istanbul
Istanbul
, with an area of about 2 square miles (5 km2). It is officially a neighbourhood in the Adalar (Islands) district of Istanbul Province
Istanbul Province
, Turkey
Turkey
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Today * 4 Places of Interest * 5 References * 6 External links GEOGRAPHY Büyükada
Büyükada
consists of two peaks
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Heybeliada
HEYBELIADA or HEYBELI ADA (Greek : Χάλκη, Halki) is the second largest of the Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, near Istanbul
Istanbul
. It is officially a neighborhood in the Adalar district of Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. The large Naval Cadet School overlooks the jetty to the left as you get off the ferry or seabus . There are two interesting pieces of architecture on the grounds of the school
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Fellow Of The Royal Society
FELLOWSHIP OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY (FRS, FORMEMRS and HONFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society
Royal Society
judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge , including mathematics , engineering science and medical science "
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Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences
SCIENCE (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics
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University Of Padua
The UNIVERSITY OF PADUA (Italian : Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua
Padua
, Italy
Italy
. The University of Padua
Padua
was founded in 1222 as a school of law and was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe. Padua
Padua
is the second-oldest university in Italy
Italy
and the world's fifth-oldest surviving university . The University of Padua
Padua
is one of Italy’s leading universities and ranks in the first position in all the recent ranking of Italian large universities. In 2010 the university had approximately 65,000 students and in 2016 was ranked "best university" among Italian institutions of higher education with more than 40,000 students
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon
GEORGES-LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE BUFFON (French pronunciation: ​ ; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist , mathematician , cosmologist , and encyclopédiste . His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
and Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
. Buffon published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle during his lifetime; with additional volumes based on his notes and further research being published in the two decades following his death. It has been said that "Truly, Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century". Buffon held the position of intendant (director) at the Jardin du Roi, now called the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes

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Lavoisier
ANTOINE-LAURENT DE LAVOISIER (also ANTOINE LAVOISIER after the French Revolution ; French: ; 26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology . He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry ". It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion . He recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and opposed the phlogiston theory . Lavoisier helped construct the metric system , wrote the first extensive list of elements , and helped to reform chemical nomenclature
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Mammal
MAMMALS are the vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones , and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Matter
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, MATTER is any substance that has mass and takes up space; this includes atoms and anything made up of these, but not other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound . More generally, however, in (modern ) physics , matter is not a fundamental concept because a universal definition of it is elusive; for example, the elementary constituents of atoms may be point particles, each having no volume individually. All the everyday objects that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are ultimately composed of atoms . This ordinary atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles —usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons , and a cloud of orbiting electrons . Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles , such as photons , are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume
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