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Latvian Rifles
LATVIAN RIFLEMEN (Latvian : Latviešu strēlnieki, Russian : Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia
Latvia
in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I . Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population. A total of about 40,000 troops were drafted into the Latvian Riflemen Division
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Duma
A DUMA (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions. The term comes from the Russian verb думать (dumat’) meaning "to think" or "to consider". The first formally constituted duma was the State Duma introduced into the Russian Empire by Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II
Nicholas II
in 1906. It was dissolved in 1917 during the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
. Since 1993, the State Duma is the lower legislative house of the Russian Federation . CONTENTS * 1 Boyar duma * 2 Municipal dumas * 3 State dumas * 3.1 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
* 3.2 Russian Federation * 4 References BOYAR DUMAThe term Boyar Duma
Duma
is used by historians to denote the class of boyars and junior boyars (okol\'nichii ) collectively within the Russian Tsardom
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Vladivostok
VLADIVOSTOK (Russian : Владивосто́к; IPA: ( listen ), literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
, Russia
Russia
, located around the Golden Horn Bay , not far from Russia's borders with China
China
and North Korea
North Korea
. The population of the city as of 2016 is 606,653, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census . The city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean

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Tsar
TSAR /zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/ ( Old Church Slavonic : ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled TZAR, CSAR, or CZAR, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, it is known as Tsarist autocracy , or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word Caesar , which was intended to mean " Emperor
Emperor
" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope
Pope
or the Ecumenical Patriarch )—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank
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Russification
RUSSIFICATION or RUSSIANIZATION is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. In a historical sense, the term refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia
Russia
, aimed at Russian domination. The major areas of Russification
Russification
are politics and culture. In politics, an element of Russification
Russification
is assigning Russian nationals to leading administrative positions in national institutions
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Stavka
The STAVKA (Russian : Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. In Imperial Russia Stavka
Stavka
refers to the administrative staff , and to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. In western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase (STAVKA), which is incorrect since it is not an acronym. Stavka
Stavka
may refer to its members, as well as to the headquarter location (its original meaning from the old Russian word ставка — Tent)
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1905 Revolution
Imperial Government victory * Revolutionaries defeated * Nicholas II
Nicholas II
retains the throne * October Manifesto
October Manifesto
* Constitution enacted * Establishment of the State Duma BELLIGERENTS Imperial Government Supported by: * Russi
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Riga
RIGA (/ˈriːɡə/ ; Latvian : Rīga, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital and the largest city of Latvia
Latvia
. With 639,630 inhabitants (2016), Riga
Riga
is the largest city in the Baltic states
Baltic states
and home to one third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga , at the mouth of the Daugava . Riga's territory covers 307.17 square kilometres (118.60 square miles ) and lies between one and ten metres (3 feet 3 inches and 32 feet 10 inches) above sea level , on a flat and sandy plain. Riga
Riga
was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, noted for its Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture
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Red Banner
RED BANNER (Russian : Красное знамя) was a symbol of the USSR
USSR
associated with the Soviet state flag . Military units, institutions and organizations (of the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
, Soviet Navy , MVD Internal Troops , etc.) awarded with the Order of the Red Banner are referred to with the honorific title "of the Red Banner" (Краснознамённый (krasnoznamyonny), e.g. The Red Banner Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
or "The Twice Red Banner Alexandrov Soviet Army Choir "). Civilian establishments awarded the Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
of Labour are also sometimes addressed with the "Red-Banner" honorific
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Latvian Language
LATVIAN (latviešu valoda ) is the official language of Latvia
Latvia
. It was previously known in English as LETTISH which remains the standard today in various forms in most other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
. There are about 1.3 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia
Latvia
and 100,000 abroad. Altogether, 2 million, or 80% of the population of Latvia, speak Latvian. Of those, 1.16 million or 56% use it as their primary language at home. The use of the Latvian language
Latvian language
in various areas of social life in Latvia
Latvia
is increasing. Latvian is a Baltic language and is most closely related to Lithuanian . In addition there is some disagreement whether Latgalian and New Curonian , which are mutually intelligible with Latvian, should be considered varieties or separate languages
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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Latvia
LATVIA, (/ˈlætviə/ ( listen ); Latvian : Latvija ), officially the REPUBLIC OF LATVIA (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is the second largest country in the Baltic region
Baltic region
of Northern Europe
Europe
and is one of the three Baltic states
Baltic states
. It is bordered by Estonia
Estonia
in the northern region, Lithuania
Lithuania
in the southern, to the east is Russia
Russia
, and Belarus to the southeast, as well as sharing a maritime border with Sweden
Sweden
to the west. Latvia
Latvia
has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate
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Courland
COURLAND, or KURZEME (in Latvian ; Livonian : Kurāmō; German and Swedish : Kurland; Latin : Curonia/Couronia; Russian : Курляндия; Lithuanian : Kuršas; Polish : Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia
Latvia
. The largest city is Liepāja , the third largest city in Latvia. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland
Courland
as they were formerly held by the same duke
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Daugava River
The DAUGAVA or WESTERN DVINA is a river rising in the Valdai Hills , Russia
Russia
, flowing through Russia, Belarus
Belarus
, and Latvia
Latvia
and into the Gulf of Riga . The total length of the river is 1,020 km (630 mi): 325 km (202 mi) in Russia, 338 km (210 mi) in Belarus, and 352 km (219 mi) in Latvia. Within Latvia
Latvia
it flows through Latgale , Zemgale , Vidzeme and Riga
Riga
, before flowing into the Gulf of Riga
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Nikolay Yudenich
NIKOLAI NIKOLAYEVICH YUDENICH (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (July 30 1862 – 5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army
Russian Imperial Army
during World War I . He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia
Russia
during the Civil War . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 World War I
World War I
* 1.3 White Army
White Army
* 1.4 Later life * 2 Honors * 3 Sources * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFEYudenich was born in Moscow, where his father was a minor court official . Yudenich graduated from the Alexandrovsky Military College in 1881 and the General Staff Academy in 1887. He first served with the Life Guards Regiment in Lithuania from November 1889 to December 1890
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Anton Ivanovich Denikin
ANTON IVANOVICH DENIKIN (Russian : Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин, IPA: ; 16 December 1872 – 8 August 1947) was a Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War . CONTENTS * 1 Childhood * 2 World War I
World War I
* 3 Civil War * 3.1 Anti-Semitism and Anti-Masonry * 4 Exile * 5 Honors * 6 Denikin\'s works * 7 See also * 8 Footnotes * 9 References * 10 External links CHILDHOODDenikin was born in Szpetal Dolny village, now part of the Polish city Włocławek
Włocławek
in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
(then part of Russian-controlled Vistula Land )
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