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Latvian Rifles
Latvian riflemen (Latvian: Latviešu strēlnieki, Russian: Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army
Imperial Russian Army
assembled starting 1915 in Latvia
Latvia
in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Courland
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Livonian: Kurāmō; German and Swedish: Kurland; Latin: Curonia/Couronia; Russian: Курляндия; Lithuanian: Kuršas; Polish: Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Latvia
Latvia, (/ˈlætviə/ ( listen); Latvian: Latvija [ˈlatvija]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Latvia
Latvia
(Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is an independent republic in the Baltic region
Baltic region
of Northern Europe.[13] Since its independence, Latvia
Latvia
has been referred to as one of the Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia
Estonia
in the northern region, Lithuania
Lithuania
in the southern, to the east is Russia, and Belarus
Belarus
to the southeast, as well as sharing a maritime border with Sweden
Sweden
to the west
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Riga
Riga
Riga
(/ˈriːɡə/; Latvian: Rīga [ˈriːɡa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 641,481 inhabitants (2016),[3] it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population.[6] The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava
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1905 Revolution
Imperial Government victoryRevolutionaries defeated Nicholas II
Nicholas II
retains the throne October Manifesto Constitution enacted Establishment of the State DumaBelligerents Imperial Government Supported by:Russian Army Okhrana Black Hundreds Russian nobility Gentry assembly Romania Revolutionaries Supported by:Peasants Industrial workers Separatists Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Soviet Moscow City Duma Chita Republic SR RSDLPCommanders and leaders Nicholas II Sergei Witte Viktor Chernov Leon TrotskyCasualties and lossesUnknown 1 battleship surrendered to RomaniaThe Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies
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Vladivostok
Vladivostok
Vladivostok
(Russian: Владивосто́к, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] ( listen), literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China
China
and North Korea
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Duma
A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions. The term comes from the Russian verb думать (dumat’) meaning "to think" or "to consider". The first formally constituted duma was the State Duma
State Duma
introduced into the Russian Empire by Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II
Nicholas II
in 1906. It was dissolved in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. Since 1993, the State Duma
State Duma
is the lower legislative house of the Russian Federation.Contents1 Boyar duma 2 Municipal dumas 3 State dumas3.1 Russian Empire 3.2 Russian Federation4 ReferencesBoyar duma[edit] The term Boyar Duma
Duma
is used by historians to denote the class of boyars and junior boyars (okol'nichii) collectively within the Russian Tsardom. In 1721, Peter the Great transferred its functions to the Governing Senate
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Tsar
Tsar
Tsar
(/zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/) (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism
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Russification
Russification
Russification
(Russian: Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. In a historical sense, the term refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia, aimed at Russian domination. The major areas of Russification
Russification
are politics and culture. In politics, an element of Russification
Russification
is assigning Russian nationals to leading administrative positions in national institutions
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Stavka
The Stavka
Stavka
(Russian: Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Soviet Union. In Imperial Russia Stavka
Stavka
refers to the administrative staff, and to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the Soviet Union. In Western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase (STAVKA), which is incorrect since it is not an acronym
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Daugava River
The Daugava
Daugava
(Latgalian: Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga
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Red Banner
Red Banner (Russian: Красное знамя) was a symbol of the USSR
USSR
associated with the Soviet state flag. Military units, institutions and organizations (of the Soviet Army, Soviet Navy, MVD Internal Troops, etc.) awarded with the Order of the Red Banner are referred to with the honorific title "of the Red Banner" (Краснознамённый (krasnoznamyonny), e.g
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Christmas
Christmas
Christmas
is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,[8][9] observed primarily on December 25[4][10][11] as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.[2][12][13] A feast central to the Christian
Christian
liturgical year, it is precede
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Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists[1][a] or Bolsheviki[3] (Russian: большевики, большевик (singular), IPA: [bəlʲʂɨˈvʲik]; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik
Menshevik
faction[b] at the Second Party Congress in 1903.[4] The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in
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