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Latin Empire
The Empire of Romania[2] (Latin: Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin
Latin
Empire or Latin
Latin
Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia
Frankokratia
or the Latin
Latin
Occupation,[3] was a feudal Crusader state
Crusader state
founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1204 and lasted until 1261
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Alasehir
Alaşehir
Alaşehir
(Turkish pronunciation: [aˈɫaʃehiɾ]), in Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
known as Philadelphia (Greek: Φιλαδέλφεια, i.e., "the city of him who loves his brother") is a town and district of Manisa Province
Manisa Province
in the Aegean region of Turkey. It is situated in the valley of the Kuzuçay (Cogamus in antiquity), at the foot of the Bozdağ Mountain (Mount Tmolus
Tmolus
in antiquity). The town is connected to İzmir
İzmir
by a 105 km (65 mi) railway. The longtime mayor is Gökhan Karaçoban. It stands on elevated ground commanding the extensive and fertile plain of the Gediz River
Gediz River
( Hermus in antiquity), presenting an imposing appearance when seen from a distance. It has ~45 mosques . There are small industries and a fair trade
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Fee (feudal Tenure)
A fief (/fiːf/; Latin: feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms
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Vassal
A vassal[1] is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief.[2] The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, fealty (fidelitas) was sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch.[3]Contents1 Western vassalage 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents 4 See also4.1 Similar terms5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksWestern vassalage[edit] In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Crete
Crete
Crete
(Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete
Crete
(Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011[update], the region had a population of 623,065. Crete
Crete
forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry and music). It was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is the earliest known civilisation in Europe
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Franks
The Franks
Franks
(Latin: Franci or Latin: gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term is associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire
Loire
and Rhine, and imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, later being recognized by the Catholic church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.[1][2][3][a] Although the Frankish name only appears in the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known under their own names to the Romans, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies
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Count Of Flanders
The Count
Count
of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century.[1] The title was held for a time by the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and the King of Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and the peerage ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of the King of the Belgians. The most recent holder died in 1983.[2] Although the early rulers, starting with Arnulf I, were sometimes referred to as margraves or marquesses, this alternate title largely fell out of use by the 12th century. Since then, the rulers of Flanders have only been referred to as Counts. The Counts of Flanders enlarged their estate through a series of diplomatic marriages. The counties of Hainaut, Namur, Béthune, Nevers, Auxerre, Rethel, Burgundy, and Artois were all acquired in this manner
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Feudal
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500Republic of Bulgaria Република България  (Bulgarian) Republika BǎlgariyaFlagCoat of armsMotto: Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian) "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata"  (transliteration) "Unity makes strength"Anthem:  Мила Родино  (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino  (transliteration) Dear MotherlandLocation of  Bulgaria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Sofia 42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683°N 23.317°E / 42.683; 23.317Official languages BulgarianOfficial script CyrillicEthnic groups (2011[1])84.8% Bulgarians 8.8% Turks 4.9% Roma 1.5% othersReligion Bulgarian O
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Greece
Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern Europe,[10] with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Treaty Of Nymphaeum (1214)
A nymphaeum or nymphaion (Ancient Greek: νυμφαῖον), in ancient Greece and Rome, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. These monuments were originally natural grottoes, which tradition assigned as habitations to the local nymphs. They were sometimes so arranged as to furnish a supply of water, as at Pamphylian Side. A nymphaeum dedicated to a local water nymph, Coventina, was built along Hadrian's Wall, in the northernmost reach of the Roman Empire. Subsequently, artificial grottoes took the place of natural ones.Contents1 Roman period 2 Mosaics 3 Later periods 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesRoman period[edit] The nymphaeum in Jerash, Jordan
Jordan
(illustration, right), was constructed in 191 AD. The fountain was originally embellished with marble facing on the lower level, painted plaster on the upper level, and topped with a half-dome roof, forming a giant niche
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