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Latin Empire
The EMPIRE OF ROMANIA ( Latin
Latin
: Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the LATIN EMPIRE or LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE, and known to the Byzantines as the LATIN OCCUPATION , was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. It was established after the capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin
Latin
Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors . Baldwin IX , Count of Flanders , was crowned the first Latin
Latin
emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204
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Feudal
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Count Of Flanders
The COUNT OF FLANDERS was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders , beginning in the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and the King of Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and the peerage ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of the King of the Belgians. The most recent holder died in 1983. Although the early rulers, starting with Arnulf I , were sometimes referred to as margraves or marquesses , this alternate title largely fell out of use by the 12th century. Since then, the rulers of Flanders have only been referred to as Counts . The Counts of Flanders enlarged their estate through a series of diplomatic marriages. The counties of Hainaut , Namur , Béthune , Nevers , Auxerre , Rethel , Burgundy , and Artois were all acquired in this manner
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Bulgaria
Coordinates : 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500 Republic of Bulgaria Република България (Bulgarian ) Republika Bǎlgariya Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian ) * "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata" (transliteration ) * " Unity makes strength
Unity makes strength
" ANTHEM: Мила Родино (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino (
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as HELLAS, is a country in Southern Europe
Europe
, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Franks
The FRANKS ( Latin
Latin
: Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
that originated in the lands between the Lower and Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
in the 3rd century AD and eventually formed a large empire dominating much of western and central Europe during the Middle Ages. The Frankish
Frankish
Empire ultimately led to the birth of modern France and Germany
Germany
and thus the Franks
Franks
are seen as the forebears of the French and German peoples (in addition to Austrians, the Dutch, Luxembourgers and some other European nations). During ancient times some Franks
Franks
raided Roman territory, while other Frankish
Frankish
tribes joined the Roman troops of Gaul
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Crete
CRETE (Greek : Κρήτη, Kríti ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands , 88th -largest island in the world and the fifth -largest island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, after Sicily
Sicily
, Sardinia
Sardinia
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, and Corsica
Corsica
. Crete
Crete
and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete
Crete
(Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece
Greece
. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion
Heraklion
. As of 2011 , the region had a population of 623,065
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Asia Minor
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 The traditional definition of Anatolia
Anatolia
within modern Turkey
Turkey
ANATOLIA (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ – "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern Turkish : Anadolu), in geography known as ASIA MINOR (from Greek : Μικρὰ Ἀσία Mīkrá Asía – "small Asia"; in modern Turkish : Küçük Asya), ASIAN TURKEY, ANATOLIAN PENINSULA, or ANATOLIAN PLATEAU, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia , which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Alasehir
ALAşEHIR (Turkish pronunciation: ), in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as PHILADELPHIA (Greek : Φιλαδέλφεια, i.e., "city of brotherly love") is a town and district of Manisa Province
Manisa Province
in the Aegean region of Turkey. It is situated in the valley of the Kuzuçay (Cogamus in antiquity), at the foot of the Bozdağ Mountain (Mount Tmolus in antiquity). The town is connected to İzmir
İzmir
by a 105 km (65 mi) railway. The longtime mayor is Gökhan Karaçoban. It stands on elevated ground commanding the extensive and fertile plain of the Gediz River
Gediz River
( Hermus in antiquity), presenting an imposing appearance when seen from a distance. It has ~45 mosques . There are small industries and a fair trade. From one of the mineral springs comes a heavily charged water popular around Turkey
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Fee (feudal Tenure)
A FIEF (/ˈfiːf/ ; Latin : feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure : these are typically known as FIEFS or FIEFDOMS. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, and tax farms
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Vassal
A VASSAL is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch , in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief . The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, a fidelity , or fidelitas, was a sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch. CONTENTS * 1 Western vassalage * 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" * 3 Feudal Japanese equivalents * 4 See also * 5 Compare * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links WESTERN VASSALAGEIn fully developed VASSALAGE, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty , including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area . Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Greek Orthodox Church
The name GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH (Greek : Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía, IPA: ), or GREEK ORTHODOXY, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, the original language of the New Testament
New Testament
, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire

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