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Languages Of Iran
Contents1 Language Policy and Planning of Iran 2 Languages of Iran 3 CIA World Factbook 4 Census in the 1990s 5 Recent survey 6 Other estimations 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksLanguage Policy and Planning of Iran[edit] The current Language Policy of Iran
Iran
is addressed on chapter two of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
(Articles 15 & 16). It asserts that the Persian language
Persian language
is the Lingua Franca of the Iranian nation and as such, bound to be used through all official government communications and schooling system
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Mehrdad Izady
Michael Mehrdad R.S.C. Izady or Michael Izady (born 1963), is a contemporary writer on ethnic and cultural topics, particularly the Greater Middle East, and Kurds.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Books 4 Book chapters 5 Notes 6 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Izady was born to a Kurdish father and a Belgian mother, and spent much of his youth in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Korea, as his diplomat parents moved from one assignment to another. He received his BA degree in History, Political Science and Geography
Geography
from the University of Kansas, and then attended Syracuse University
Syracuse University
where he received two master's degrees in Remote Sensing- Cartography
Cartography
and in International Relations
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Indo-European Language Family
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Minority Language
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 193 sovereign states recognized internationally (as of 2008)[1] and an estimated number of roughly 5,000 to 7,000 languages spoken worldwide,[2] it follows that the vast majority of languages are minority languages in every country in which they are spoken. Some minority languages are simultaneously also official languages, including the Irish language
Irish language
in Ireland
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Keyboard Layout
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout is the placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout is the arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system, rather than directly sending characters. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes
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ISIRI 9147
ISIRI 9147 is the Iranian national standard for Persian keyboard layout, based on ISIRI 6219 and the Unicode Standard. It was published on 2007-04-08, under the title Information technology – Layout of Persian letters and symbols on computer keyboards, by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). [1] References[edit]^ "ISIRI-9147.pdf" (PDF). ISIRI, archived on Persian Computing Community website. This standards- or measurement-related article is a stub
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Constitution Of The Islamic Republic Of Iran
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran[1][2] was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979,[3][4] and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.[5] It was amended on 28 July 1989.[6] The constitution has been called a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements"
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Lingua Franca
A lingua franca (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/; lit. Frankish tongue),[1] also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.[2] Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.[3][4] The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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CIA World Factbook
The World
World
Factbook, also known as the CIA World
World
Factbook,[1] is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition. The Factbook is available in the form of a website that is partially updated every week. It is also available for download for use off-line
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Semitic Languages
The Semitic languages[2][3] are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
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Circassian Language
Circassian /sɜːrˈkæsiən/, also known as Cherkess /tʃərˈkɛs/, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family. There are two Circassian languages, defined by their literary standards, Adyghe (КӀахыбзэ, also known as West Circassian), with half a million speakers, and Kabardian (Къэбэрдейбзэ, also known as East Circassian), with a million. The languages are mutually intelligible with one another. The earliest extant written records of the Circassian languages
Circassian languages
are in the Arabic script, recorded by the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
in the 17th century.[2] There is a strong consensus among the linguistic community about the fact that Adyghe and Kabardian are typologically distinct languages.[3][4][5] However, the local terms for these languages refer to them as dialects
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Caucasian Languages
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea. Linguistic comparison allows these languages to be classified into several language families, with little or no discernible affinity to each other
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Kartvelian Languages
The Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
(Georgian: ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi) (also known as Iberian[2] and formerly[3] South Caucasian[4]) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel,[5] and northeastern parts of Turkey.[6] There are approximately 5.2 million speakers of Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
worldwide. The Kartvelian family is not known to be related to any other language family, making it one of the world's primary language families.[7] The first literary source in a Kartvelian language is the Georgian language inscriptions of Bir el Qutt, written in ancient Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script at the Georgian monastery near Bethlehem,[8] which dates back to c
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Azerbaijani People
Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
(/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːni/) or Azeris (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks[47] (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic[48][49][50] ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan. They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks.[51] They are predominantly Shi'i Muslims,[52] and have a mixed cultural heritage, including Turkic,[53] Iranian,[54] and Caucasian elements
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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. It is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form [1]. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some varieties of Arabic
Arabic
in North Africa, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
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