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Languages Of Iran
CONTENTS * 1 Language Policy and Planning of Iran
Iran
* 2 Languages of Iran
Iran
* 3 CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
* 4 Census in the 1990s * 5 Recent survey * 6 Other estimations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links LANGUAGE POLICY AND PLANNING OF IRANThe current LANGUAGE POLICY of Iran
Iran
is addressed on chapter two of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
(Articles 15 "> With regard to the Iranian LANGUAGE PLANNING, among the institutions accountable for advancing the Iranian Language Planning (e.g. Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology) is the Academy of Persian Language and Literature , which was established on 1991
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CIA World Factbook
THE WORLD FACTBOOK (ISSN 1553-8133 ; also known as the CIA WORLD FACTBOOK) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac -style information about the countries of the world . The official print version is available from the National Technical Information Service and the Government Printing Office . Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing —also print a paper edition. The Factbook is available in the form of a website that is partially updated every week. It is also available for download for use off-line
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Indo-European Language Family
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse
Domestication of the horse
* Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East . Semitic languages are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia , North Africa and the Horn of Africa , as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America and Europe , with smaller communities in the Caucasus and Central Asia . The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis
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Lingua Franca
A LINGUA FRANCA (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Constitution Of The Islamic Republic Of Iran
The CONSTITUTION OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1905. It was amended on 28 July 1989. The constitution has been called a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements". While articles One and Two vest sovereignty in God, article six "mandates popular elections for the presidency and the Majlis, or parliament." However all democratic procedures and rights are subordinate to the Guardian Council and the Supreme Leader , whose powers are spelled out in Chapter Eight (Articles 107-112)
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants
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Minority Language
A MINORITY LANGUAGE is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 193 sovereign states recognized internationally (as of 2008) and an estimated number of roughly 5,000 to 7,000 languages spoken worldwide, it follows that the vast majority of languages are minority languages in every country in which they are spoken. Some minority languages are simultaneously also official languages , including the Irish language in Ireland . Likewise, some national languages are often considered minority languages, insofar as they are the national language of a stateless nation
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Keyboard Layout
A KEYBOARD LAYOUT is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer , typewriter , or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout The placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout The arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout The arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system , rather than directly sending characters. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes
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Caucasian Languages
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , which lie between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea . Linguistic comparison allows these languages to be classified into several language families , with little or no discernible affinity to each other. However, the languages of the Caucasus
Caucasus
are sometimes mistakenly referred to as a family of languages
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Kartvelian Languages
The KARTVELIAN LANGUAGES (Georgian : ქართველური ენები) (also known as IBERIAN and formerly SOUTH CAUCASIAN ) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and spoken primarily in Georgia , with large groups of native speakers in Russia , Iran
Iran
, the United States
United States
, the European Union
European Union
, Israel
Israel
, and northeastern parts of Turkey
Turkey
. There are approximately 5.2 million speakers of Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
worldwide. It is not known to be related to any other language family, making it one of the world's primary language families
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Azeri People
AZERBAIJANIS (/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːniz/ ) or AZERIS (Azerbaijani : Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as AZERBAIJANI TURKS (Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group in the Caucasus living mainly in Iranian Azerbaijan and the independent Republic of Azerbaijan . They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks . They are predominantly Shi\'i Muslims , and have a mixed cultural heritage, including Turkic , Iranian , and Caucasian elements. They comprise the largest ethnic group in Republic of Azerbaijan and by far the second-largest ethnic group in neighboring Iran. The world's largest number of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran , followed by Azerbaijan
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Mehrdad Izady
MICHAEL MEHRDAD R.S.C. IZADY or MICHAEL IZADY (born 1963), is a contemporary writer on ethnic and cultural topics, particularly the Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East
, and Kurds
Kurds
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Books * 4 Book chapters * 5 Notes * 6 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONIzady was born to a Kurdish father and a Belgian mother, and spent much of his youth in Iraq
Iraq
, Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Korea , as his diplomat parents moved from one assignment to another
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Columbia University
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY (COLUMBIA; officially COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan
Upper Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
. Columbia contains the oldest college in the state of New York and is the fifth chartered institution of higher learning in the United States, making it one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence . It was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain
George II of Great Britain
and renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
. The college has produced numerous distinguished alumni . It has been among the most selective colleges in the United States
United States
since its founding
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Liturgical Language
A SACRED LANGUAGE, "HOLY LANGUAGE" (in religious context) or LITURGICAL LANGUAGE is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 Christianity
Christianity
* 4 Hinduism
Hinduism
* 5 Islam
Islam
* 6 Judaism * 6.1 Donmeh * 7 Lingayatism
Lingayatism
* 8 List of sacred languages * 9 References CONCEPT This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Classical Arabic
CLASSICAL ARABIC is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi . Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content; it is also used in modernized versions of Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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