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Language Strife
The Language Strife (Swedish: Finska språkstriden, lit. 'Finnish language dispute') was a major conflict in the mid-19th century Finland. Both the Swedish and Finnish languages were commonly used in Finland
Finland
at the time, leading to class tensions among the speakers of the different languages. It became acute in the mid-19th century and was considered to have ended when Finnish gained official language status in 1923 and became equal with the Swedish language.Contents1 Background 2 Nationalism
Nationalism
and the question of language 3 After independence 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingBackground[edit] Main article: History of Finland See also: Finland
Finland
under Swedish rule Finland
Finland
had once been under Swedish rule (Sweden-Finland). Swedish (with some Latin) was the language of administration and education in the Swedish Realm
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Swedish People's Party Of Finland
The Swedish People's Party of Finland
Finland
(Swedish: Svenska folkpartiet i Finland
Finland
(SFP); Finnish: Suomen ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (RKP)) is a liberal-centrist[5] political party in Finland
Finland
aiming to represent the interests of the minority Swedish-speaking population of Finland.[6][7][8] An ethnic catch-all party,[9] the party's main election issue has been since its inception the Swedish-speaking Finns' right to their own language and to maintain the Swedish language's position in Finland. The party was in governmental position 1979–2015 with one or two seats in the government and collaborated with the centre-right as well as the centre-left in the Parliament of Finland
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Literal Translation
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original whole. In translation studies, "literal translation" denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts.[1] In translation theory, another term for "literal translation" is "metaphrase"; and for phrasal ("sense") translation — "paraphrase." When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the meaning of mistranslating idioms,[2] for example, or in the context of translating an analytic language to a synthetic language, it renders even the grammar unintelligible. The concept of literal translation may be viewed as an oxymoron (contradiction in terms), given that literal denotes something existing without interpretation, where
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Nicholas II Of Russia
Nicholas II or Nikolai II, Saint
Saint
Nicholas II of Russia
Russia
in the Russian Orthodox Church (Russian: Николай II Алекса́ндрович, tr. Nikolay II Aleksandrovich; 18 May [O.S
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Finnish General Strike Of 1905
Imperial Government victoryRevolutionaries defeated Nicholas II
Nicholas II
retains the throne October Manifesto Constitution enacted Establishment of the State DumaBelligerents Imperial Government Supported by:Russian Army Okhrana Black Hundreds Russian nobility Gentry assembly Romania Revolutionaries Supported by:Peasants Industrial workers Separatists Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Soviet Moscow City Duma Chita Republic SR RSDLPCommanders and leaders Nicholas II Sergei Witte Viktor Chernov Leon TrotskyCasualties and lossesUnknown 1 battleship surrendered to RomaniaThe Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies
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Åland Crisis
The Åland Islands dispute was one of the first issues put up for arbitration by the League of Nations on its formation. The Åland Islands' population's demand for self-determination was not met and sovereignty over the islands was retained by Finland, but international guarantees were given to allow the population to pursue its own culture, relieving the threat of forced assimilation by Finnish culture as perceived by the islanders.Contents1 Background 2 Military crisis 3 Political crisis 4 Aftermath 5 Autonomy of Åland Islands 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBackground[edit] Prior to 1809, the Åland Islands were located within the boundaries of the Swedish realm. However, in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809, Sweden had to give up control of the islands, along with Finland, to Imperial Russia. The Grand Duchy of Finland became an autonomous entity, including the Åland Islands, within the Russian Empire
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Interwar Period
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939. Despite the relatively short period of time, this period represented an era of significant changes worldwide. Petroleum and associated mechanisation expanded dramatically leading to the Roaring Twenties (and the Golden Twenties), a period of economic prosperity and growth for the middle class in North America, Europe and many other parts of the world. Automobiles, electric lighting, radio broadcasts and more became commonplace among populations in the developed world
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University Of Helsinki
The University
University
of Helsinki
Helsinki
(Finnish: Helsingin yliopisto, Swedish: Helsingfors universitet, Latin: Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland
Finland
since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku
Turku
(in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the oldest and largest university in Finland
Finland
with the widest range of disciplines available
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Väinö Tanner (geographer)
Väinö Tanner (1881–1948) was a Finnish geographer, geologist and diplomat. Tanner is best known for his studies on the Quaternary geology of northern Finland. He was a vocal opponent to the Finnicization of the University of Helsinki.[1] References[edit]^ Lindberg, Johan (August 5, 2011). "Tanner, Väinö". Uppslagsverket Finland (in Swedish). Retrieved November 30, 2017. This article about a Finnish scientist is a stub
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Karelia
Coordinates: 63°N 32°E / 63°N 32°E / 63; 32 Flags
Flags
of KareliaThe two flags of Karelia, the nationalist flag (left, with cross) and the official flag of the Russian Republic of Karelia
Republic of Karelia
(right, with bars)Coat of arms of KareliaThe two coats of arms of Karelia, the Finnish one (left, with crown) and the Russian one (right, with bear) Karelia
Karelia
(Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Russian: Карелия, Kareliya; Swedish: Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe
Northern Europe
of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden
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Fennicization
Finnicization (also finnicisation, fennicization, fennicisation) is the changing of one's personal names from other languages (usually Swedish) into Finnish. During the era of National Romanticism in Finland, many people, especially Fennomans, finnicized their previously Swedish family names.A set of graves in Tampere, showing the Swedish surname ‘Kyander’ as well as the fennicized ‘Kiianmies’.Some of these people were descended from Finnish-speaking farmers, who had previously changed their Finnish names to Swedish ones after climbing society's ladder. This was an understandable stratagem, as official positions (and even many trades) were only open to those speaking Swedish, and a Finnish name would have been an impediment to success. A notable event in finnicization was the centenary, in 1906, 100 years after the birth of the philosopher and statesman Johan Vilhelm Snellman
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Mandatory Swedish
In Finland, Swedish is a mandatory school subject for Finnish-speaking pupils in the last three years of the primary education (grades 7 to 9). This so-called other domestic language is also mandatory in high schools, vocational schools, and vocational universities. Furthermore, all university graduates must demonstrate a certain level of proficiency in Swedish (the so-called public servant's Swedish). Altogether 89% of Finnish citizens are native Finnish speakers, whereas 5.3% of the population report Swedish as their mother tongue.[1] Currently, it is possible for Finnish citizens to report a different mother tongue for themselves at any time, and as many times as desired, by submitting a form to the Population Register Center. According to the Finnish constitution, both Finnish and Swedish are national languages. The employees of the national government and the bilingual municipal governments are required to be able to serve citizens in Swedish
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Language Revival
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.[1] Those involved can include parties such as linguists, cultural or community groups, or governments. Some argue for a distinction between language revival (the resurrection of a dead language with no existing native speakers) and language revitalization (the rescue of a "dying" language). It has been pointed out that there has only been one successful instance of a complete language revival, that of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language, creating a new generation of native speakers without any pre-existing native speakers as a model.[2][unreliable source?] Languages targeted for language revitalization include those whose use and prominence is severely limited. Sometimes various tactics of language revitalization can even be used to try to revive extinct languages
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Language Policy
Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. Although nations historically have used language policies most often to promote one official language at the expense of others, many countries now have policies designed to protect and promote regional and ethnic languages whose viability is threatened
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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