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Landgrave
LANDGRAVE (Dutch : landgraaf, German : Landgraf; Swedish : lantgreve, French : landgrave; Latin : comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of Landgraf, Markgraf ("margrave "), and Pfalzgraf ("count palatine ") are in the same class of ranks as Herzog ("duke") and above the rank of a Graf
Graf
("count"). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Examples * 4 Related terms * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word LANDGRAVE is the equivalent of the German LANDGRAF, a compound of the words Land and Graf
Graf
(German: count). DESCRIPTIONThe title referred originally to a count who had imperial immediacy , or feudal duty owed directly to the Holy Roman Emperor
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe
Central Europe
that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe
Western Europe
, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Swedish Language
SWEDISH ( svenska (help ·info ) ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by more than 10 million people - predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as sole official language), and in parts of Finland
Finland
, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish . It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent also Danish , although the amount of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse
Old Norse
, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era . It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages
Germanic languages
by number of speakers
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Heraldic Crown
Heraldry
Heraldry
portal * v * t * e A CROWN is often an emblem of the sovereign state, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; see The Crown . Crowns may also be used by some republics . A specific type of crown (or coronet for peerage in the British Isles) is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
. Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the arms of Norway
Norway
here
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Dutch Language
Aruba
Aruba
Belgium
Belgium
Curaçao Netherlands
Netherlands
Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Suriname
------------------------- BENELUX EUROPEAN UNION SOUTH AMERICAN UNION CARICOM REGULATED BY Nederlandse Taalunie ( Dutch Language Union ) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 nl ISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T) ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/ Flemish
Flemish
GLOTTOLOG mode1257 LINGUASPHERE 52-ACB-a Dutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans
Afrikaans
) Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western Europe THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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Herzog
HERZOG is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal authority over an estate called a duchy , or possesses a right by law or tradition to be referred to by the ducal title. The word is usually translated by the English duke and the Latin dux . Generally, a Herzog
Herzog
ranks below a king and above a count . Whether the title is deemed higher or lower than titles translated into English as "prince" ( Fürst ) has depended upon the language, country and era in which the titles co-existed
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Compound (linguistics)
In linguistics , a COMPOUND is a lexeme (less precisely, a word ) that consists of more than one stem . COMPOUNDING, COMPOSITION or NOMINAL COMPOSITION is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes. That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined to make one longer word. The meaning of the compound may be similar to or different from the meanings of its components in isolation. The component stems of a compound may be of the same part of speech—as in the case of the English word footpath, composed of the two nouns foot and path—or they may belong to different parts of speech, as in the case of the English word blackbird, composed of the adjective black and the noun bird. With very few exceptions, English compound words are stressed on their first component stem. The process occurs readily in other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
for different reasons
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Rulers Of Hesse
A RULER, sometimes called a RULE or LINE GAUGE, is an instrument used in geometry , technical drawing , printing , engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain calibrated lines to measure distances. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Ruler applications in geometry * 3 History * 4 Curved and flexible rulers * 5 Philosophy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links TYPES Gilded bronze ruler. 1 chi = 23.1 cm (9.1 in). Western Han (206 BCE – 8 CE). Hanzhong City , China Bronze ruler. Han dynasty, 206 BCE – 220 CE. Excavated in Zichang County , China A flexible ruler unstretched A flexible ruler stretched Rulers have long been made from different materials and in a wide range of sizes. Some are wooden
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Lower Lotharingia
The DUCHY OF LOWER LORRAINE, or LOWER LOTHARINGIA (also referred to as Lothier or Lottier in titles), was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany
Germany
, which encompassed almost all of the modern Netherlands
Netherlands
(including Friesland
Friesland
), central and eastern Belgium
Belgium
, Luxemburg
Luxemburg
, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France
France
's Nord-Pas de Calais
Nord-Pas de Calais
region. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Successor states * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYIt was created out of the former Middle Frankish realm of Lotharingia under King Lothair II , that had been established in 855
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Saxe-Weimar
SAXE-WEIMAR (German : Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia
Thuringia
. The chief town and capital was Weimar
Weimar
. The Weimar
Weimar
branch was the most genealogically senior extant branch of the House of Wettin
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Bishop
A BISHOP (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained , consecrated , or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Anglican , Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East , bishops claim apostolic succession , a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles
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