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Lancaster Sound
Lancaster Sound
Lancaster Sound
( Inuktitut
Inuktitut
"Tallurutiup Imanga"[1]) is a body of water in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. It is located between Devon Island
Devon Island
and Baffin Island, forming the eastern entrance to the Parry Channel
Parry Channel
and the Northwest Passage. East of the sound lies Baffin Bay; to the west lies Viscount Melville Sound. Further west a traveller would enter the M'Clure Strait
M'Clure Strait
before heading into the Arctic Ocean. Lancaster Sound
Lancaster Sound
was named in 1616 by explorer William Baffin
William Baffin
for Sir James Lancaster, one of the three main financial supporters of his exploratory expeditions. The abortive expedition by the British explorer John Ross in 1818 ended when he saw what he believed were mountains blocking the end of Lancaster Sound
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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Black-legged Kittiwake
The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae. This species was first described by Linnaeus
Linnaeus
in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Larus
Larus
tridactylus.[2] The English name is der
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Arctogadus Glacialis
Arctogadus borisovi Dryagin, 1932 Gadus glacialis W. K. H. Peters, 1872 Phocaegadus megalops Jensen, 1948Arctogadus glacialis, known also with ambiguous common names Arctic cod[1][2] and polar cod,[1][3] is an Arctic
Arctic
species of fish in the cod family Gadidae, related to the true cod (genus Gadus). Arctogadus glacialis is found in icy water. They grow to about 30 cm long, and are favorite food of narwhals and other arctic whales.Contents1 Common names and taxonomy 2 Appearance 3 Distribution 4 Diet 5 ReferencesCommon names and taxonomy[edit] The common names " Arctic
Arctic
cod" and "polar cod" can refer to either Arctogadus glacialis or Boreogadus saida, and " Arctic
Arctic
cod" may also refer to Eleginus nawaga.[4] Another Arctic
Arctic
gadid, the East Siberian cod (Arctogadus borisovi), was until recently considered the closest relative of A
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Narwhal
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth. It lives year-round in the Arctic
Arctic
waters around Greenland, Canada, and Russia. It is one of two living species of whale in the Monodontidae
Monodontidae
family, along with the beluga whale. The narwhal males are distinguished by a long, straight, helical tusk, which is an elongated upper left canine. The narwhal was one of many species described by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758. Like the beluga, narwhals are medium-sized whales. For both sexes, excluding the male's tusk, the total body size can range from 3.95 to 5.5 m (13 to 18 ft); the males are slightly larger than the females. The average weight of an adult narwhal is 800 to 1,600 kg (1,760 to 3,530 lb)
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Bowhead Whale
The bowhead whale ( Balaena
Balaena
mysticetus) is a species of the family Balaenidae, in suborder Mysticeti, and genus Balaena, which once included the right whale. A stocky dark-colored whale without a dorsal fin, it can grow 14 to 18 m (46 to 59 ft) in length. This thick-bodied species can weigh from 75 to 100 tonnes (74 to 98 long tons; 83 to 110 short tons).[3] They live entirely in fertile Arctic
Arctic
and sub- Arctic
Arctic
waters, unlike other whales that migrate to low latitude waters to feed or reproduce. The bowhead was also known as the Greenland
Greenland
right whale or Arctic
Arctic
whale. American whalemen called them the steeple-top, polar whale,[4] or Russia or Russian whale. The bowhead has the largest mouth of any animal.[5] The bowhead was an early whaling target
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Ringed Seal
The ringed seal (Pusa[1] hispida or Phoca
Phoca
hispida[1]), also known as the jar seal, as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit
Inuit
and as Ньиэрпэ by the Yakut, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic
Arctic
and sub- Arctic
Arctic
regions. The ringed seal is a relatively small seal, rarely greater than 1.5 m in length, with a distinctive patterning of dark spots surrounded by light grey rings, hence its common name
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Bearded Seal
The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean.[3] It gets its generic name from two Greek words (eri and gnathos) that refer to its heavy jaw. The other part of its Linnaean name means bearded and refers to its most characteristic feature, the conspicuous and very abundant whiskers. When dry, these whiskers curl very elegantly,[3] giving the bearded seal a "raffish" look.[citation needed] Bearded seals are the largest northern phocid. They have been found to weigh as much as much as 300 kg with the females being the largest. However, male and female bearded seals are not very dimorphic.[3] The only member of the genus Erignathus, the bearded seal is unique in that it is an intermediate. Bearded seals belong to the family Phocidae
Phocidae
which contains two subfamilies: Phocinae
Phocinae
and Monachinae
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Harp Seal
Phoca
Phoca
groenlandicaThe harp seal or saddleback seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus is a species of earless seal, or true seal, native to the northernmost Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and Arctic Ocean. Originally in the genus Phoca
Phoca
with a number of other species, it was reclassified into the monotypic genus Pagophilus in 1844. In Latin, its scientific name translates to "ice-lover from Greenland," and its taxonomic synonym, Phoca groenlandica translates to "Greenlandic seal."[2]Contents1 Description 2 Physiology2.1 Diving 2.2 Thermoregulation 2.3 Senses 2.4 Diet3 Life history3.1 Reproduction and Development4 Distribution4.1 Migration and vagrancy 4.2 Seal hunting 4.3 Population Dynamics5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDescription[edit] Whitecoated pup Skull of a harp seal The mature harp seal has pure black eyes
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Walrus
O. rosmarus rosmarus O. rosmarus divergens O. rosmarus laptevi (debated)Distribution of walrusSynonyms Phoca
Phoca
rosmarus Linnaeus, 1758 Trichechus rosmarus Linnaeus, 1758 Walrus
Walrus
cows and yearlings (short tusks), photo courtesy USFWS The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole
North Pole
in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae
Odobenidae
and genus Odobenus. This species is subdivided into two subspecies:[2] the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus) which lives in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) which lives in the Pacific Ocean.Adult walrus are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, whiskers, and bulk
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Polar Bear
†Ursus maritimus tyrannus(?)[4] Polar bear
Polar bear
rangeSynonymsUrsus eogroenlandicus Ursus groenlandicus Ursus jenaensis Ursus labradorensis Ursus marinus Ursus polaris Ursus spitzbergensis Ursus ungavensis Thalarctos maritimusThe polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, encompassing the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is a large bear, approximately the same size as the omnivorous Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi).[5] A boar (adult male) weighs around 350–700 kg (772–1,543 lb),[6] while a sow (adult female) is about half that size
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Thick-billed Murre
U. l. lomvia – (Linnaeus, 1758) U. l. eleonorae – (Portenko, 1937) U. l. heckeri – (Portenko, 1944) U. l. arra – (Pallas, 1811)SynonymsAlca lomvia Linnaeus, 1758The thick-billed murre or Brünnich's guillemot ( Uria
Uria
lomvia) is a bird in the auk family (Alcidae). This bird is named after the Danish zoologist Morten Thrane Brünnich. The very deeply black North Pacific subspecies Uria
Uria
lomvia arra is also called Pallas' murre after its describer. The genus name is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ouria, a waterbird mentioned by Athenaeus
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Fulmar
The fulmars are tubenosed seabirds of the family Procellariidae. The family consists of two extant species and two extinct fossils from the Miocene. Fulmars superficially resemble gulls, but are readily distinguished by their flight on stiff wings, and their tube noses. They breed on cliffs, laying one or rarely two eggs on a ledge of bare rock or on a grassy cliff. Outside the breeding season, they are pelagic, feeding on fish, squid and shrimp in the open ocean. They are long-lived for birds, living for up to 40 years. Historically, the northern fulmar lived on the Isle of St Kilda, where it was extensively hunted
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Drainage Basin
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water
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Black Guillemot
The black guillemot or tystie ( Cepphus
Cepphus
grylle) is a medium-sized alcid. The genus name Cepphus
Cepphus
is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
kepphos, a pale waterbird mentioned by Greek authors including Aristotle. The species name grylle was the local dialect name for this bird in Gotland
Gotland
at the time of Linnaeus's visit there in 1741.[2] The English word "guillemot" is from French guillemot probably derived from Guillaume, "William".[3] Adult birds have black bodies with a white wing patch, a thin dark bill, and red legs and feet
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Arctic Tern
Sterna
Sterna
portlandica Sterna
Sterna
pikeiThe Arctic
Arctic
tern ( Sterna
Sterna
paradisaea) is a tern in the family Laridae. This bird has a circumpolar breeding distribution covering the Arctic and sub- Arctic
Arctic
regions of Europe, Asia, and North America
North America
(as far south as Brittany and Massachusetts). The species is strongly migratory, seeing two summers each year as it migrates along a convoluted route from its northern breeding grounds to the Antarctic coast for the southern summer and back again about six months later. Recent studies have shown average annual roundtrip lengths of about 70,900 km (44,100 mi) for birds nesting in Iceland
Iceland
and Greenland[3] and c
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