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Laminoplasty
Laminoplasty
Laminoplasty
is an orthopaedic/neurosurgical surgical procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord. The procedure involves cutting the lamina on both sides of the affected vertebrae (cutting through on one side and merely cutting a groove on the other) and then "swinging" the freed flap of bone open thus relieving the pressure on the spinal cord. The spinous process may be removed to allow the lamina bone flap to be swung open
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Upper Limb
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.[1]Contents1 Definition 2 Structure2.1 Musculoskeletal system2.1.1 Shoulder
Shoulder
girdle 2.1.2 Shoulder
Shoulder
joint 2.1.3 Arm 2.1.4 Forearm 2.1.5 Wrist 2.1.6 Hand2.2 Neurovascular system2.2.1 Innervation 2.2.2 Vasculature3 Other animals3.1 Evolutionary variation4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesDefinition[edit] In formal usage, the term "arm" only refers to the structures from the shoulder to the elbow, explicitly excluding the forearm, and thus "upper limb" and "arm" are not synonymous.[2] However, in casual usage, the terms are often used interchangeably
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Dentofacial Osteotomy
Orthognathic surgery
Orthognathic surgery
(/ˌɔːrθəɡˈnæθɪk/); also known as corrective jaw surgery or simply jaw surgery, is surgery designed to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to structure, growth, sleep apnea, TMJ
TMJ
disorders, malocclusion problems owing to skeletal disharmonies, or other orthodontic problems that cannot be easily treated with braces. Originally coined by Harold Hargis, this surgery is also used to treat congenital conditions such as cleft palate.[1] Typically during oral surgery, bone is cut, moved, modified, and realigned to correct a dentofacial deformity. The word "osteotomy" means the division, or excision of bone
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Cartilage
Cartilage
Cartilage
is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components. It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is much stiffer and much less flexible than muscle. Because of its rigidity, cartilage often serves the purpose of holding tubes open in the body
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Stenosis
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. It is also sometimes called a stricture (as in urethral stricture).[3] Stricture as a term is usually used when narrowing is caused by contraction of smooth muscle (e.g., achalasia, prinzmetal angina); stenosis is usually used when narrowing is caused by lesion that reduces the space of lumen (e.g., atherosclerosis).[citation needed] The term coarctation is another synonym,[4] but is commonly used only in the context of aortic coarctation. Restenosis
Restenosis
is the recurrence of stenosis after a procedure
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Joint
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis
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Laminotomy
A laminotomy is an orthopaedic neurosurgical procedure that removes part of the lamina of a vertebral arch in order to relieve pressure in the vertebral canal.[1] A laminotomy is less invasive than conventional vertebral column surgery techniques, such as laminectomy because it leaves more ligaments and muscles attached to the vertebral column intact and it requires removing less bone from the vertebra.[1] As a result, laminotomies typically have a faster recovery time and result in fewer postoperative complications
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Orthognathic Surgery
Orthognathic surgery
Orthognathic surgery
(/ˌɔːrθəɡˈnæθɪk/); also known as corrective jaw surgery or simply jaw surgery, is surgery designed to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to structure, growth, sleep apnea, TMJ
TMJ
disorders, malocclusion problems owing to skeletal disharmonies, or other orthodontic problems that cannot be easily treated with braces. Originally coined by Harold Hargis, this surgery is also used to treat congenital conditions such as cleft palate.[1] Typically during oral surgery, bone is cut, moved, modified, and realigned to correct a dentofacial deformity. The word "osteotomy" means the division, or excision of bone
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Mentoplasty
Chin
Chin
augmentation using surgical implants can alter the underlying structure of the face, providing better balance to the facial features. The specific medical terms mentoplasty and genioplasty are used to refer to the reduction and addition of material to a patient's chin. This can take the form of chin height reduction or chin rounding by osteotomy, or chin augmentation using implants. This operation is often, but not always, performed at the time of rhinoplasty to help balance the facial proportions
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Genioplasty
Chin
Chin
augmentation using surgical implants can alter the underlying structure of the face, providing better balance to the facial features. The specific medical terms mentoplasty and genioplasty are used to refer to the reduction and addition of material to a patient's chin. This can take the form of chin height reduction or chin rounding by osteotomy, or chin augmentation using implants. This operation is often, but not always, performed at the time of rhinoplasty to help balance the facial proportions
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Chin Augmentation
Chin
Chin
augmentation using surgical implants can alter the underlying structure of the face, providing better balance to the facial features. The specific medical terms mentoplasty and genioplasty are used to refer to the reduction and addition of material to a patient's chin. This can take the form of chin height reduction or chin rounding by osteotomy, or chin augmentation using implants. This operation is often, but not always, performed at the time of rhinoplasty to help balance the facial proportions
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Jaw Reduction
Jaw reduction is a type of surgery in which the objective of treatment is to narrow the lower one-third of the face—particularly the contribution from the mandible and its muscular attachments. There are several techniques for treatment—including surgical and non surgical methods.Contents1 Facial aesthetics 2 Causes 3 Techniques3.1 Botox injection 3.2 Surgical reduction4 ReferencesFacial aesthetics[edit]This section contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. Please remove or replace such wording and instead of making proclamations about a subject's importance, use facts and attribution to demonstrate that importance
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Intervertebral Disc Arthroplasty
Artificial disc replacement (ADR), or total disc replacement (TDR), is a type of arthroplasty. It is a surgical procedure in which degenerated intervertebral discs in the spinal column are replaced with artificial devices in the lumbar (lower) or cervical (upper) spine. The procedure is used to treat chronic, severe low back pain and cervical pain resulting from degenerative disc disease. Cervical disc replacement is also an alternative intervention for symptomatic disc herniation with associated arm and hand symptoms. Artificial disc replacement has been developed as an alternative to spinal fusion, with the goal of pain reduction or elimination, while still allowing motion throughout the spine
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Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone where it passes through the foramen magnum, and meets and enters the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae. The spinal cord extends down to between the first and second lumbar vertebrae where it ends. The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. It is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and around 43 cm (17 in) long in women
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Lamina Of The Vertebral Arch
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate. The basic configuration of a vertebra varies; the large part is the body, and the central part is the centrum. The upper and lower surfaces of the vertebra body give attachment to the intervertebral discs. The posterior part of a vertebra forms a vertebral arch, in eleven parts, consisting of two pedicles, two laminae, and seven processes. The laminae give attachment to the ligamenta flava (ligaments of the spine). There are vertebral notches formed from the shape of the pedicles, which form the intervertebral foramina when the vertebrae articulate. These foramina are the entry and exit conducts for the spinal nerves
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