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Lambeth Palace Library
Coordinates: 51°29′44″N 0°7′11″W / 51.49556°N 0.11972°W / 51.49556; -0.11972 Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace, photographed looking east across the River Thames.The Great Hall, St Mary-at-Lambeth, and the Tudor gatehouse (from inside), with the river on the right. Lambeth
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Hans Holbein The Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger
(German: Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (c. 1497[2] – between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.[3] He also produced religious art, satire and Reformation propaganda, and made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic school. Born in Augsburg, Holbein worked mainly in Basel
Basel
as a young artist. At first he painted murals and religious works and designed for stained glass windows and printed books. He also painted the occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of the humanist Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus
of Rotterdam
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Hammerbeam Roof
A hammerbeam roof is a decorative, open timber roof truss typical of English Gothic architecture
English Gothic architecture
and has been called "...the most spectacular endeavour of the English Medieval carpenter."[1] They are traditionally timber framed, using short beams projecting from the wall on which the rafters land, essentially a tie beam which has the middle cut out. These short beams are called hammer-beams[2] and give this truss its name. A hammerbeam roof can have a single, double or false hammerbeam truss.Contents1 Design 2 Examples 3 References 4 Further readingDesign[edit] A hammerbeam is a form of timber roof truss, allowing a hammerbeam roof to span greater than the length of any individual piece of timber
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English Interregnum
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration. During the Interregnum England was under various forms of republican government (see Commonwealth of England; this article describes other facets of the Interregnum).Contents1 Politics 2 Life during the Interregnum 3 Jews in England 4 Radicals vs conservatives4.1 Levellers 4.2 Diggers 4.3 Religious sects 4.4 Conservatives5 Historical analysis 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPolitics[edit] Main article: Commonwealth of England The politics of the period were dominated by the wishes of the Grandees (Senior Officers) of the New Model Army
New Model Army
and their civilian supporters
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Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
FRS (/piːps/ PEEPS;[1] 23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary that he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty
Secretary to the Admiralty
under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, and his talent for administration. His influence and reforms at the Admiralty
Admiralty
were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy.[2] The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was first published in the 19th century and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration
English Restoration
period
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Crenellations
A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences. These gaps are termed "crenels" (also known as carnels, embrasures, or wheelers), and the act of adding crenels to a previously unbroken parapet is termed crenellation. Thus, a defensive building might be designed and built with battlements, or a manor house might be fortified by adding battlements, where no parapet previously existed, or cutting crenellations into its existing parapet wall. The solid widths between the crenels are called merlons (also cops or kneelers). A wall with battlements is said to be crenelated or embattled. Battlements on walls have protected walkways (chemin de ronde) behind them
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Hampton Court Palace
Hampton Court Palace
Hampton Court Palace
is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, London, England, 11.7 miles (18.8 kilometres) south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames. Building of the palace began in 1515 for Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a favourite of King Henry VIII. In 1529, as Wolsey fell from favour, the King seized the palace for himself and later enlarged it. Along with St James's Palace, it is one of only two surviving palaces out of the many owned by King Henry VIII. In the following century, King William III's massive rebuilding and expansion project, which destroyed much of the Tudor palace, was intended to rival Versailles.[2] Work ceased in 1694, leaving the palace in two distinct contrasting architectural styles, domestic Tudor and Baroque
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Tudor Period
The Tudor period
Tudor period
is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period
Elizabethan period
during the reign of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
until 1603. The Tudor period
Tudor period
coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor
House of Tudor
in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457–1509)
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Cardinal Wolsey
Thomas Wolsey
Thomas Wolsey
(c. March 1473[1] – 29 November 1530; sometimes spelled Woolsey or Wulcy) was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. When Henry VIII
Henry VIII
became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the King's almoner.[2] Wolsey's affairs prospered, and by 1514 he had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state and extremely powerful within the Church, as Archbishop of York, a cleric in England junior only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. His appointment in 1515 as a cardinal by Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
gave him precedence over all other English clerics. The highest political position Wolsey attained was Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser (formally, as his successor and disciple Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cromwell
was not). In that position, he enjoyed great freedom and was often depicted as an alter rex (other king)
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Ragstone
Rag-stone
Rag-stone
is a name given by some architectural writers to work done with stones that are quarried in thin pieces, such as Horsham Stone, sandstone, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
stone, and the slate stones, but this is more properly flag or slab work. By rag-stone, or Kentish rag, near London, is meant an excellent material from the neighborhood of Maidstone. It is a very hard limestone of bluish-grey colour, and peculiarly suited for medieval work. It is often laid as uncoursed work, or random work, sometimes as random coursed work and sometimes as regular ashlar. Ragstone, a dull grey stone, is still quarried on an industrial scale close to the Kent Downs AONB. It has traditionally been used within the AONB as a road stone, cobble or sett and a walling block
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Ashlar
Ashlar
Ashlar
is finely dressed (cut, worked) masonry, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the masonry built of such stone. It is the finest stone masonry unit, generally cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius
Vitruvius
as opus isodomum, or less frequently trapezoidal. Precisely cut "on all faces adjacent to those of other stones", ashlar is capable of very thin joints between blocks, and the visible face of the stone may be quarry-faced or feature a variety of treatments: tooled, smoothly polished or rendered with another material for decorative effect.[1][2] One such decorative treatment consists of small grooves achieved by the application of a metal comb
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Anthony Van Dyck
Sir Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
(Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛi̯k], many variant spellings;[1] 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque
Baroque
artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy
Italy
and the Southern Netherlands. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England
England
and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching
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English Civil War
Parliamentarian victoryExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Establishment of the republican Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish, Welsh and Irish Royalists English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersKing Charles I   Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
of the Rhine Charles IIEarl of Essex Thomas Fairfax Oliver CromwellCasualties and losses50,000[1] 34,000[1]127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)[a]v t eEnglish Civil WarFirst Second ThirdThe English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government
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William Hogarth
William Hogarth
William Hogarth
FRSA
FRSA
(/ˈhoʊɡɑːrθ/; 10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects",[2] perhaps best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress
A Rake's Progress
and Marriage A-la-Mode. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are often referred to as "Hogarthian".[3] Hogarth was born in London to a poor middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship where he specialised in engraving
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Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
RA FRS FRSA (/ˈrɛnəldz/; 16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits. John Russell said he was one of the major European painters of the 18th Century. [1] He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect
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