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Lamaze
The Lamaze technique, also known as the psychoprophylactic method or simply Lamaze, started as a prepared childbirth technique popularized in the 1950s by French obstetrician Dr. Fernand Lamaze based on his observations in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as an alternative to the use of medical intervention during childbirth. Today, Lamaze has become a popular way to get information about pregnancy, birth, and parenting through Lamaze International. The stated goal of Lamaze is to increase a mother's confidence in her ability to give birth; classes help pregnant women understand how to cope with pain in ways that both facilitate labor and promote comfort, including relaxation techniques, movement and massage.[1]Contents1 History 2 The "Six Healthy Birth Practices" 3 Lamaze Certified Childbirth
Childbirth
Educators (LCCE) 4 Criticism 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Dr
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Natural Family Planning
Natural family planning (NFP) comprises the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and some Protestant denominations for both achieving and postponing or avoiding pregnancy.[1][2] In accordance with the Church's teachings regarding sexual behavior, NFP excludes the use of other methods of birth control, which it refers to as "artificial contraception." Periodic abstinence is now deemed moral by the Church for avoiding or postponing pregnancy for just reasons.[3] When used to avoid pregnancy, couples may engage in sexual intercourse during a woman's naturally occurring infertile times such as during portions of her ovulatory cycle
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Birth Control
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.[1] Birth control
Birth control
has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century.[2] Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning.[3][4] Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.[2] The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy
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Family Planning
Family planning
Family planning
services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".[1] Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them. These matters are influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception[2][3] and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction
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Human Embryogenesis
Human embryogenesis
Human embryogenesis
is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development. In biological terms, human development entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being. Fertilisation
Fertilisation
occurs when the sperm cell successfully enters and fuses with an egg cell (ovum). The genetic material of the sperm and egg then combine to form a single cell called a zygote and the germinal stage of prenatal development commences.[1] Embryogenesis
Embryogenesis
covers the first eight weeks of development; at the beginning of the ninth week the embryo is termed a fetus. Human embryology is the study of this development during the first eight weeks after fertilisation
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Hypatia (journal)
Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy
Philosophy
is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell. As of March 2018, the journal is led by an interim editor, Ann Garry, and two interim co-editors, Serene Khader and Alison Stone.[2] Book
Book
reviews are published by Hypatia
Hypatia
Reviews Online (HRO).[3] The journal is owned by a non-profit corporation, Hypatia, Inc.[4] The philosopher and legal scholar Azizah Y. al-Hibri
Azizah Y

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Sheila Kitzinger
Sheila Helena Elizabeth Kitzinger MBE
MBE
(29 March 1929 – 11 April 2015) was a British natural childbirth activist and author on childbirth and pregnancy. She wrote more than 20 books and had a worldwide reputation as a passionate and committed advocate for change.Contents1 Life and work 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksLife and work[edit] Kitzinger was born in Taunton, Somerset. She was a social anthropologist specialising in pregnancy, childbirth and the parenting of babies and young children
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Cold Pack
An ice pack or gel pack is a portable plastic sac filled with water, or refrigerant gel or liquid. For use the contents are frozen in a freezer. Both ice and other non-toxic refrigerants (mostly water) can absorb a considerable amount of heat before they warm above 0 °C, due to the high latent heat of fusion of water. These packs are commonly used to keep food cool in portable coolers, or as a cold compress to alleviate the pain of minor injuries; or in insulated shipping containers to keep products cool during transport. Ice packs are used in coolers to keep perishable foods (especially meats, dairy products, eggs, etc.) below the 5–75 °C (41–167 °F) danger zone when outside a refrigerator or freezer, and to keep drinks pleasantly cool. The amount of ice needed varies with the amount of food, its initial temperature, the thermal insulation of the cooler, and the ambient temperature and exposure to direct sunlight
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Human Fertilization
Human
Human
fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. The result of this union is the production of a zygote cell, or fertilized egg, initiating prenatal development. Scientists discovered the dynamics of human fertilization in the nineteenth century.[1] The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum. The most common sequence begins with ejaculation during copulation, follows with ovulation, and finishes with fertilization. Various exceptions to this sequence are possible, including artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, external ejaculation without copulation, or copulation shortly after ovulation.[2][3][4] Upon encountering the secondary oocyte, the acrosome of the sperm produces enzymes which allow it to burrow through the outer jelly coat of the egg
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Heating Pad
A heating pad is a pad used for warming of parts of the body in order to manage pain. Localized application of heat causes the blood vessels in that area to dilate, enhancing perfusion to the targeted tissue. Types of heating pads include electrical, chemical and hot water bottles. Specialized heating pads (mats) are also used in other settings. Heat mats in plant propagation stimulates seed germination and root development; they operate at cooler temperatures. Heat mats also are available in the pet trade, especially as warming spots for reptiles such as lizards and snakes.Contents1 Types1.1 Electrical 1.2 Chemical2 High specific-heat capacity materials2.1 Phase-change materials3 Function 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes[edit]An electric heating padElectrical[edit] Electric
Electric
pads usually operate from household current and must have protection against overheating. A moist heating pad is used dry on the user's skin
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Fertility Awareness
Fertility
Fertility
awareness (FA) refers to a set of practices used to determine the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle. Fertility
Fertility
awareness methods may be used to avoid pregnancy, to achieve pregnancy, or as a way to monitor gynecological health. Methods of identifying infertile days have been known since antiquity, but scientific knowledge gained during the past century has increased the number and variety of methods. Systems of fertility awareness rely on observation of changes in one or more of the primary fertility signs (basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and cervical position), tracking menstrual cycle length and identifying the fertile window based on this information, or both
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Midwife
A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care.[1][2] They are also educated and trained to recognise the variations of normal progress of labor, and understand how to deal with deviations from normal. They may intervene in high risk situations such as breech births, twin births and births where the baby is in a posterior position, using non-invasive techniques. When a pregnant woman requires care beyond the midwife's scope of practice, they refer women to obstetricians or perinatologists who are medical specialists in complications related to pregnancy and birth, including surgical and instrumental deliveries.[3][4] In many parts of the world, these professions work in tandem to provide care to childbearing women
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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