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Lake Agassiz
Coordinates : 51°N 98°W / 51°N 98°W / 51; -98 An early map of the extent of Lake Agassiz
Lake Agassiz
(by 19th century geologist Warren Upham). This map is now believed to underestimate the extent of the region once overlain by Lake Agassiz. LAKE AGASSIZ was a very large glacial lake located in the middle of the northern part of North America
North America
. Fed by glacial meltwater at the end of the last glacial period , its area was larger than all of the modern Great Lakes
Great Lakes
combined though its mean depth was not as great as that of many major lakes today. First postulated in 1823 by William H. Keating , it was named by Warren Upham in 1879 after Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz
, when Upham recognized that the lake was formed by glacial action
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Arctic Ocean
The ARCTIC OCEAN is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans . The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the ARCTIC MEDITERRANEAN SEA or simply the ARCTIC SEA, classifying it a mediterranean sea or an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Alternatively, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean . Located mostly in the Arctic
Arctic
north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere , the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America . It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter
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Canada–United States Border
The CANADA–UNITED STATES BORDER (French: Frontière entre le Canada et les États-Unis), officially known as the INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
, the second- and fourth-largest countries by area, respectively. The terrestrial boundary (including portions of maritime boundaries in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
, and on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic coasts) is 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi) long, of which 2,475 kilometres (1,538 mi) is Canada's border with Alaska
Alaska

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Sea Level Rise
A SEA LEVEL RISE is an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans, resulting in an increase in global mean sea level . Sea level
Sea level
rise is usually attributed to global climate change by thermal expansion of the water in the oceans and by melting of ice sheets and glaciers on land. Melting of floating ice shelves or icebergs at sea raises sea levels only slightly. Sea level
Sea level
rise at specific locations may be more or less than the global average. Local factors might include tectonic effects, subsidence of the land, tides, currents, storms, etc. Sea level
Sea level
rise is expected to continue for centuries. Because of long response times for parts of the climate system, it has been estimated that we are already committed to a sea-level rise within the next 2,000 years of approximately 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) for each degree Celsius
Celsius
of temperature rise
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Geologist
A GEOLOGIST is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology , although backgrounds in physics , chemistry , biology , and other sciences are also useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Some geologists work in the mining business searching for metals, oils, and other Earth resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters prevention and mitigation, studying natural hazards such as earthquakes , volcanic activity, tsunamis , weather storms. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are also important contributors to climate change discussions
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Minnesota River
The MINNESOTA RIVER is a tributary of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
, approximately 332 miles (534 km) long, in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Minnesota . It drains a watershed of nearly 17,000 square miles (44,000 km2), 14,751 square miles (38,200 km2) in Minnesota
Minnesota
and about 2,000 sq mi (5,200 km2) in South Dakota
South Dakota
and Iowa
Iowa
. It rises in southwestern Minnesota, in Big Stone Lake on the Minnesota– South Dakota
South Dakota
border just south of the Laurentian Divide at the Traverse Gap portage. It flows southeast to Mankato , then turns northeast. It joins the Mississippi south of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul , near the historic Fort Snelling
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Mississippi River
The MISSISSIPPI RIVER is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
drainage system. Flowing entirely in the United States (although its drainage basin reaches into Canada), it rises in northern Minnesota
Minnesota
and meanders slowly southwards for 2,320 miles (3,730 km) to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River
River
Delta at the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
. With its many tributaries , the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 31 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
. The Mississippi
Mississippi
ranks as the fourth-longest and fifteenth-largest river in the world by discharge
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Human Civilization
A CIVILIZATION (UK and US ) or CIVILISATION (British English variant ) is any complex society characterized by urban development , social stratification , symbolic communication form (typically, writing systems ) and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment , and social domination by cultural elite . Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, including centralization , the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour , culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism , monumental architecture , taxation , societal dependence upon farming and expansionism . Historically, a civilization was a so-called "advanced" culture in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures
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Freshwater
FRESH WATER is naturally occurring water on Earth
Earth
's surface in ice sheets , ice caps , glaciers , icebergs , bogs , ponds , lakes , rivers and streams , and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids . The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. The term "SWEET WATER" (from Spanish "agua dulce") has been used to describe fresh water in contrast to salt water . The term "fresh water" does not have the same meaning as potable water . Much of the surface fresh water and ground water is unsuitable for drinking without some form of purification because of the presence of chemical or biological contaminants
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Before Present
BEFORE PRESENT (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the fact that radiocarbon dating became practical in the 1950s. The abbreviation "BP", with the same meaning, has also been interpreted as "Before Physics"; that is, before nuclear weapons testing artificially altered the proportion of the carbon isotopes in the atmosphere, making dating after that time likely to be unreliable. CONTENTS * 1 Usage of "BP" * 2 Radiocarbon dating * 3 Radiocarbon calibration * 4 Other dating conventions * 5 References USAGE OF "BP"The BP scale is sometimes used for dates established by means other than radiocarbon dating, such as stratigraphy
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Kaministiquia River
The KAMINISTIQUIA RIVER /ˌkæmɪˈnɪstɪkwɑː/ is a river which empties into western Lake Superior
Lake Superior
at the city of Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
, Ontario
Ontario
. Kaministiquia (Gaa-ministigweyaa) is an Ojibwe word meaning "(river) with islands" due to two large islands (McKellar and Mission) at the mouth of the river. The delta has three branches or outlets, reflected on early North American maps in French as "les trois rivières" (the three rivers): the southernmost is known as the MISSION RIVER, the central branch as the MCKELLAR RIVER, and the northernmost branch as the Kaministiquia. Residents of the region commonly refer to the river as the KAM RIVER. Water flow in the Kaministiquia River
River
system is regulated at the Dog Lake dams 1 and 2 and at the Greenwater, Kashabowie and Shebandowan dams
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St. Croix River (Wisconsin–Minnesota)
The ST. CROIX RIVER (French : Holy Cross) is a tributary of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
, approximately 169 miles (272 km) long, in the U.S. states of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota
Minnesota
. The lower 125 miles (201 km) of the river form the border between Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota. The river is a National Scenic Riverway under the protection of the National Park Service
National Park Service
. A hydroelectric plant at St. Croix Falls supplies power to the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area
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Mendota, Minnesota
MENDOTA is a city in Dakota County , Minnesota , United States . The name is derived from the Dakota language , meaning "mouth or junction of one river with another. The population was 198 at the 2010 census . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 3.1 2010 census * 3.2 2000 census * 4 Notable residents and natives * 5 Gallery of images * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe town was one of the first permanent settlements in the state of Minnesota, being founded around the same time as Fort Snelling . It also houses a small museum which used to be the Hypolite Du Puis house, the Henry Hastings Sibley house, the Faribault house, and buildings associated with the American Fur Company , all dating from the 1830s. The main route through the small city is State Highway 13 , also known as Sibley Memorial Highway. Other roads in the city are mainly small unimproved roads
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South Dakota
SOUTH DAKOTA (/- dəˈkoʊtə/ ( listen )) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux
Sioux
Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota is the 17th most expansive , but the 5th least populous and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States
United States
. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory , South Dakota
South Dakota
became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota . Pierre is the state capital and Sioux
Sioux
Falls , with a population of about 174,000, is South Dakota's largest city
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Genesis Flood Narrative
The GENESIS FLOOD NARRATIVE (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
) is the Hebrew version of the universal flood myth . The story tells of God's decision to return the Earth
Earth
to its pre-creation state of watery chaos and then remake it in a reversal of creation
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