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Lahul
The district of LAHAUL-SPITI in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two formerly separate districts of LAHAUL and SPITI. The present administrative centre is Keylong in Lahaul. Before the two districts were merged, Kardang was the capital of Lahaul, and Dhankar the capital of Spiti. The district was formed in 1960. Kunzum la or the Kunzum Pass (altitude 4,551 m; 14,931 ft) is the entrance pass to the Spiti Valley
Spiti Valley
from Lahaul. It is 21 km from Chandra Tal . This district is connected to Manali through the Rohtang Pass
Rohtang Pass
. To the south, Spiti
Spiti
ends 24 km from Tabo , at the Sumdo where the road enters Kinnaur
Kinnaur
and joins with National Highway No. 22. The two valleys are quite different in character
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Bhot
The BODH PEOPLE, also known as BHOT, are an ethnic group of Himachal Pradesh , India. They are found in Lahaul tehsil , Lahaul and Spiti district , predominantly in the Bhaga and Chandra valleys , but also to a lesser extent in Pattani valley , Miyar Valley, in the upper reaches of Pangi, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and Paddar valley, Jammu and Kashmir . Their religion is Buddhism
Buddhism
. REFERENCES * ^ A B C Bhasin et al. 1983 , p. 16. * ^ Singh, Bhasin Singh, Indera P.; Walter, H.; Bhardwaj, Veena (1983). "Genetic study of five population groups of Lahaul-Spiti and Kulu districts, Himachal Pradesh". Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie. 74 (1): 13–38. ISSN 0044-314X . JSTOR
JSTOR
25756637 . * Singh, Kanwaljit; Bhasin, MK; Singh, IP (2008)
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Tibet
Coordinates : 31°12′N 88°48′E / 31.2°N 88.8°E / 31.2; 88.8 "Greater Tibet" as claimed by Tibetan exile groups Tibetan autonomous areas , as designated by China Tibet Autonomous Region , within China Chinese-controlled, claimed by India as part of Aksai Chin Indian -controlled, parts claimed by China as
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Guge
GUGE (Tibetan : གུ་གེ་, Wylie : gu ge) was an ancient kingdom in Western Tibet
Tibet
. The kingdom was centered in present-day Zanda County
Zanda County
, Ngari Prefecture , Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region . At various points in history after the 10th century AD, the kingdom held sway over a vast area including south-eastern Zanskar , Upper Kinnaur district , and Spiti Valley , either by conquest or as tributaries. The ruins of the former capital of the Guge
Guge
kingdom are located at Tsaparang
Tsaparang
in the Sutlej valley, not far from Mount Kailash
Mount Kailash
and 1,200 miles (1,900 km) westwards from Lhasa
Lhasa

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Polyandry
POLYANDRY (/ˈpɒliˌændri, ˌpɒliˈæn-/ ; from Greek : πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time. Polyandry is contrasted with polygyny , involving one male and two or more females. If a marriage involves a plural number of "husbands and wives" participants of each gender, then it can be called polyamory , group or conjoint marriage . In its broadest use, polyandry refers to sexual relations with multiple males within or without marriage. Of the 1,231 societies listed in the 1980 Ethnographic Atlas, 186 were found to be monogamous; 453 had occasional polygyny; 588 had more frequent polygyny; and 4 had polyandry. Polyandry
Polyandry
is less rare than this figure which listed only those examples found in the Himalayan mountains (28 societies). More recent studies have found more than 50 other societies practicing polyandry
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Indo-Aryans
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures *
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Tibetan People
The TIBETAN PEOPLE (Tibetan : བོད་པ་, Wylie : bod pa, THL : bö pa) are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet
Tibet
. They number an estimate of 7.8 million. Significant Tibetan minorities also live outside of Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) in China
China
, and in India
India
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
. Tibetans speak the Tibetic languages , many varieties of which are mutually unintelligible . They belong to the Tibeto-Burman languages . The traditional, or mythological, explanation of the Tibetan people's origin is that they are the descendants of the human Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa and rock ogress Ma Drag Sinmo. It is thought that most of the Tibeto-Burman-speakers in Southwest China, including the Tibetans, are direct descendants from the ancient Qiang
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Snow Leopards
See text Range map SYNONYMS * Felis
Felis
irbis Ehrenberg , 1830 (= Felis
Felis
uncia Schreber, 1775), by subsequent designation (Palmer , 1904). * Uncia uncia Pocock , 1930The SNOW LEOPARD or OUNCE ( Panthera
Panthera
uncia syn. Uncia uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia
South Asia
. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species because, as of 2003, the size of the global wild population was estimated at 4,080–6,590 adults. Fewer than 2,500 individuals may be reproducing in the wild. As of 2016, estimates for the size of the global population vary from at least 4,080 to about 8,700 individuals. Snow leopards inhabit alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft). In the northern range countries, they also occur at lower elevations
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Brown Bear
16, see text Brown
Brown
bear range mapThe BROWN BEAR (Ursus arctos) is a large bear with the widest distribution of any living ursid. The species is distributed across much of northern Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America
North America
. It is one of the two largest terrestrial carnivorans alive today, rivaled in body size only by its close cousin, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), which is much less variable in size and averages larger due to this. There are several recognized subspecies, many of which are quite well-known within their native ranges, found in the brown bear species
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Fox
FOXES are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae . Foxes are slightly smaller than a medium-size domestic dog , with a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout , and a long bushy tail (or brush). Twelve species belong to the monophyletic group of Vulpes
Vulpes
genus of "true foxes". Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying group, which consists of bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) with about 47 recognized subspecies
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Gandhola Monastery
GANDHOLA MONASTERY (GAṅDOLā, also called GONDLA, GONDHLA, KUNDLAH, or GURU GHANTAL GOMPA) is about 18 kilometres (11 mi) before Keylong in Lahaul and Spiti district
Lahaul and Spiti district
, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
, India on the road from Manali, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
. It is located on a hill above Tupchiling Village at the sacred junction of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers, which together form the Chandrabhaga or Chenab River
Chenab River
. The village is at 3,160 m (10,370 ft) and is famous for its 7-storey tower fort. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gallery * 3 Footnotes * 4 References HISTORYThe monastery is said to have been founded by Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in the 8th century
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Clan
A CLAN is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent . Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor . The kinship-based bonds may be symbolic, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity. When this "ancestor" is non-human, it is referred to as a totem , which is frequently an animal. The word clan is derived from the Gaelic clann meaning children or progeny but not from the word for family in the Irish language
Irish language
and the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
languages. According to the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
, the word was introduced into English in around 1425, as a label for the nature of the society of the Scottish Highlands ll
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Himalayas
The HIMALAYAS, or HIMALAYA (/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/ ), form a mountain range in Asia
Asia
separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest
Mount Everest
. The Himalayas
Himalayas
include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia
Asia
( Aconcagua
Aconcagua
, in the Andes
Andes
) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long
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Drukpa Kagyu
The DRUKPA LINEAGE (Dzongkha : འབྲུག་པ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད), or simply DRUKPA, sometimes called either DUGPA or "Red Hat sect " in older sources, is a branch of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism . The Kagyu school is one of the Sarma or "New Translations" schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Within the Drukpa Lineage, there are further sub-schools, most notably the eastern Kham tradition and middle Drukpa school which prospered in Ladakh and surrounding areas. In Bhutan the Drukpa Lineage is the dominant school and state religion
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Gelugpa
The GELUG, GELUG-PA, DGE LUGS PA, DGE-LUGS-PA or DGELUGSPA is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism . It was founded by Je Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
(1357–1419), a philosopher and Tibetan religious leader. The first monastery he established was named Ganden , and to this day the Ganden Tripa
Ganden Tripa
is the nominal head of the school, though its most influential figure is the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
. Allying themselves with the Mongols
Mongols
as a powerful patron, the Gelug
Gelug
emerged as the pre-eminent Buddhist school in Tibet
Tibet
since the end of the 16th century. " Ganden " is the Tibetan rendition of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name " Tushita ", the Pure land
Pure land
associated with Maitreya Buddha
Maitreya Buddha

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Shiva
SHIVA (/ˈʃivə/ ; IAST
IAST
: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism
Hinduism
. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism
Shaivism
, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer and transformer" within the Trimurti
Trimurti
, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu
Vishnu
. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe
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