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La Tolita
The History of Ecuador
Ecuador
extends over an 8,000-year period. During this time a variety of cultures and territories influenced what has become the Republic of Ecuador
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Cuzco
Cusco
Cusco
(Spanish: Cuzco, [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu or Quechua: Qosqo, IPA: [ˈqɔsqɔ]), often spelled Cuzco (/ˈkuːskoʊ/), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year
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Cotocollao Indians
The Cotocollao culture were an indigenous Pre-Columbian culture the valley that is now Quito, in Ecuador. Introduction[edit] The Cotocollao Indians were the first inhabitants of the mountains of what is now Ecuador. They lived approximately 1,500 to 500 years BCE. The Cotocollao had a culture based on art and they made very fine pieces of ceramic for the time in which they lived. Artwork[edit] Probably the most distinguishing feature of the Cotocollao Indians was their ability to create ceramic artwork. They made ceramics that were more for decoration than for their usefulness. It is not known whether or not they had a special place inside their houses to make ceramic artwork or not. To make the ceramic, the Cotocollaos used a paste made of pumice powder. The surface of the ceramic is known for its distinctive red tint. So mastered were they at this artwork that some pieces of ceramic are even known to produce certain animal or bird sounds
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Military History Of Ecuador
The military history of Ecuador spans hundreds of years.Contents1 The Gran-Colombian era 2 Separation and early republic 3 Civil war 4 Struggle and emancipation 5 Politics, war and defeat 6 Regaining strength 7 Paquisha War 8 Cenepa War 9 Past and present 10 See also 11 ReferencesThe Gran-Colombian era[edit]The Battle of Camino Real, 1820, was the first battle between royalists and rebel forces in the Ecuadorian War of Independence.Ecuador's military history dates back to its first attempt to secure freedom from Spain in 1811. The rebel forces of the newly declared independent state of Quito attempted to extend their control to other parts of the territory but proved little match against the royalist army dispatched by the Viceroy of Peru. In December 1812, during the Battle of Ibarra, Spanish forces easily reasserted control over the contested areas
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Simón Bolívar
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad de Bolívar y Palacios[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβar] ( listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama
Panama
as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain
Spain
when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America
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Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one,[1][2] "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba[3] [4] sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization. His original name was Tito Husi Hualpa.[5] He was the successor to Topa Inca Yupanqui.[6]:108Contents1 Background and family 2 Political and military career 3 Death and legacy 4 Lost mummy 5 References 6 Further readingBackground and family[edit] The exact date of Huayna Capac's birth are unknown; it may have been in 1468, in Tumebamba
Tumebamba
(modern Cuenca) where he also may have spent part of his childhood, but then raised in Cuzco. He was the son of Topa Inca
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Santa Elena Peninsula
The Santa Elena Peninsula
Peninsula
is a peninsula in Santa Elena Province, Ecuador
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Brooklyn Museum
The Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet (52,000 m2), the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works.[2] Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights, Flatbush, and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim, Mead and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world. The museum initially struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities, specifically their collection of Egyptian antiquities
Egyptian antiquities
spanning over 3,000 years
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Machalilla Culture
The Machalilla were a prehistoric people in Ecuador, in southern Manabí and the Santa Elena Peninsula. The dates when the culture thrived are uncertain, but are generally agreed to encompass 1500 BCE to 1100 BCE.[1]Contents1 Machalilla Culture 2 Time frame 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources and external linksMachalilla Culture[edit] The Machalilla were an agricultural people who also pursued fishing, hunting and gathering
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Valdivia
Valdivia
Valdivia
(Spanish pronunciation: [balˈdiβja]) is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality
Municipality
of Valdivia. The city is named after its founder Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
and is located at the confluence of the Calle-Calle, Valdivia, and Cau-Cau Rivers, approximately 15 km (9 mi) east of the coastal towns of Corral and Niebla. Since October 2007, Valdivia
Valdivia
has been the capital of Los Ríos Region
Los Ríos Region
and is also the capital of Valdivia Province. The national census of 2002 recorded the commune of Valdivia as having 140,559 inhabitants (Valdivianos), of whom 127,750 were living in the city.[4] The main economic activities of Valdivia include tourism, wood pulp manufacturing, forestry, metallurgy, and beer production
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Bahía De Caráquez
Bahía de Caráquez, officially known as San Antonio de Caraquez and founded under the name of Villa de San Antonio de la Bahía de Caráquez or simply known today as Bahía, formerly called Bahía de los Caras during the period of the Spanish conquest, is a coastal city belonging to the Sucre county, in the Ecuadorian province of Manabí. The city is located on a sandy peninsula on the country's western coast at the mouth of the Río Chone and has considerable tourism infrastructure that positions it as the main regional town. It has seen significant development during the last 15 to 20 years, particularly because it has become a vacation destination for people from Quito and Guayaquil. The city is located one hour north of the city of Manta and in the pre-Columbian era was host to the ancient Indian city of Caran. Across the bay is the town of San Vicente. Bahía became an Ecocity on February 23, 1999 due to the devastation caused by two natural disasters in 1997 and 1998
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History Of Ecuador (1990–present)
This article is about the history of Ecuador from 1990 to the present.Contents1 Ballén presidency 2 Bucaram presidency 3 Constitutional reform 4 Mahuad's presidency 5 ReferencesBallén presidency[edit] In 1992, Sixto Durán Ballén won his third run for the presidency. His tough macroeconomic adjustment measures were unpopular, but he succeeded in pushing a limited number of modernization initiatives through Congress. Durán Ballén's vice president, Alberto Dahik, was the architect of the administration's economic policies, but in 1995, Dahik fled the country to avoid prosecution on corruption charges following a heated political battle with the opposition. A war with Peru (named the Cenepa War, after a river located in the area) erupted in January–February 1995 in a small, remote region, where the boundary prescribed by the 1942 Rio Protocol was in dispute
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Capulí Culture
The Capulí culture refers to an archaeological classification for a group in Pre-Columbian South America on the Andean plain in what is now northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. The Capulí preceded the Piartal and Tuza cultures in the archaeological record[1] ranging from around 800 to 1500 CE. The Capulí culture left a strong record through its pottery. The Capulí had distinctive black on dark red pottery with rectilinear geometric designs. The anthropomorphic pottery statues of the Capulí can be striking. Women are depicted with a wrap that extends from the armpit to the ankle while men have loincloths and are often shown with an object such as a drum or animal. These figures are often called coqueros because they are depicted with wads of coca leaves in their mouths. Scholars have associated the figures with shamans and possible funerary rituals.[1] Capulí goldwork is similar to that of later Ecuadoran and Columbian cultures
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Bahia De Caraquez
Bahía de Caráquez, officially known as San Antonio de Caraquez and founded under the name of Villa de San Antonio de la Bahía de Caráquez or simply known today as Bahía, formerly called Bahía de los Caras during the period of the Spanish conquest, is a coastal city belonging to the Sucre county, in the Ecuadorian province of Manabí. The city is located on a sandy peninsula on the country's western coast at the mouth of the Río Chone and has considerable tourism infrastructure that positions it as the main regional town. It has seen significant development during the last 15 to 20 years, particularly because it has become a vacation destination for people from Quito and Guayaquil. The city is located one hour north of the city of Manta and in the pre-Columbian era was host to the ancient Indian city of Caran. Across the bay is the town of San Vicente. Bahía became an Ecocity on February 23, 1999 due to the devastation caused by two natural disasters in 1997 and 1998
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Manta, Ecuador
Manta is a mid-sized city in Manabí Province, Ecuador. It is the second most populous city in the province, the fifth most populous in the country. Manta has existed since Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
times. It was a trading post for the Mantas. According to the 2001 census, the city had 192,322 inhabitants. Its main economic activity is tuna fishing. Other economic activities include tourism and a chemical industry with products from cleaning supplies to oils and margarine. Manta possesses the largest seaport in Ecuador
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Inca Civilization
. The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco
Kingdom of Cusco
before 1438. Over the course of the Inca Empire, the Inca used conquest and peaceful assimilation to incorporate in their empire a large portion of western , centred on the Andean
Andean
mountain ranges. However, shortly after the Inca Civil War, the last Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
(emperor) of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
was captured and killed on the orders of the conquistador Francisco Pizarro, marking the beginning of Spanish rule. The remnants of the empire retreated to the remote jungles of Vilcabamba and were not established the small Neon-Inca State, which was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. The Quechua name was Tawantin Suyu which can be translated The Four Regions or The Four United Regions. Before the Quechua spelling reform it was written in Spanish as Tahuantinsuyo
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