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La Tolita
The HISTORY OF ECUADOR extends over an 8,000-year period. During this time a variety of cultures and territories influenced what has become the Republic of Ecuador
Ecuador
. The history can be divided into five eras: Pre-Columbian, the Conquest, the Colonial Period, the War of Independence , Gran Colombia
Gran Colombia
, and Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
the final separation of his vision into what is known today as the Republic of Ecuador
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Santa Elena Peninsula
The SANTA ELENA PENINSULA is a peninsula in Santa Elena Province , Ecuador
Ecuador
. The Santa Elena Peninsula
Peninsula
contains the westernmost point on mainland Ecuador
Ecuador
and is bordered by the Gulf of Guayaquil to the south and the Santa Elena Bay to the north. The peninsula region is dry and contains resources such as salt mines and a significant oil field at Ancón . The settlement of Chinchipe is the closest settlement to the tip of the peninsula; it is served by Ecuador
Ecuador
Highway 70 , which extends to the tip of the peninsula. Whale watchings are popular among the region to observe mainly Humpback Whales that come to warm, calm waters around the peni nsula during their migration seasons, and some species of dolphins such as Pantropical Spotted Dolphins and Spinner Dolphins can be found as well
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Machalilla Culture
The MACHALILLA were a prehistoric people in Ecuador
Ecuador
, in southern Manabí and the Santa Elena Peninsula. The dates when the culture thrived are uncertain, but are generally agreed to encompass 1500 BCE to 1100 BCE. CONTENTS * 1 Machalilla Culture * 2 Time frame * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources and external links MACHALILLA CULTUREThe Machalilla were an agricultural people who also pursued fishing , hunting and gathering . Like many prehistoric cultures of coastal Ecuador, the people practiced artificial cranial deformation by using stones to flatten and lengthen their skulls. Archaeologists focus on the unusual cemeteries of the Machalilla, in which bodies were settled beneath a ceramic turtle shell, and on their ceramic work in general, which represented artistic and technological advances in the art
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Valdivia
VALDIVIA (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a city and commune in southern Chile
Chile
, administered by the Municipality
Municipality
of Valdivia. The city is named after its founder Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
and is located at the confluence of the Calle-Calle , Valdivia
Valdivia
, and Cau-Cau Rivers, approximately 15 km (9 mi) east of the coastal towns of Corral and Niebla . Since October 2007, Valdivia
Valdivia
has been the capital of Los Ríos Region and is also the capital of Valdivia Province . The national census of 2002 recorded the commune of Valdivia
Valdivia
as having 140,559 inhabitants (Valdivianos), of whom 127,750 were living in the city. The main economic activities of Valdivia
Valdivia
include tourism, wood pulp manufacturing, forestry, metallurgy, and beer production
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Cotocollao Indians
The COTOCOLLAO CULTURE were an indigenous Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
culture the valley that is now Quito
Quito
, in Ecuador
Ecuador
. INTRODUCTIONThe Cotocollao Indians were the first inhabitants of the mountains of what is now Ecuador. They lived approximately 1,500 to 500 years BCE. The Cotocollao had a culture based on art and they made very fine pieces of ceramic for the time in which they lived. ARTWORKProbably the most distinguishing feature of the Cotocollao Indians was their ability to create ceramic artwork. They made ceramics that were more for decoration than for their usefulness. It is not known whether or not they had a special place inside their houses to make ceramic artwork or not. To make the ceramic, the Cotocollaos used a paste made of pumice powder. The surface of the ceramic is known for its distinctive red tint
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Huayna Capac
HUAYNA CAPAC, HUAYNA CáPAC, GUAYNA CAPAC (in hispanicized spellings) or WAYNA QHAPAQ (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one, "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
, sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization
Inca civilization
. His original name was TITO HUSI HUALPA. He was the successor to Topa Inca Yupanqui
Topa Inca Yupanqui
. :108 CONTENTS * 1 Background and family * 2 Political and military career * 3 Death and legacy * 4 Lost mummy * 5 References * 6 Further reading BACKGROUND AND FAMILYThe exact date of Huayna Capac's birth is unknown; it may have been in 1468, most probably in Tumebamba
Tumebamba
(modern Cuenca ) where he also may have spent part of his childhood. He was the son of Topa Inca
Topa Inca

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Simón Bolívar
SIMóN JOSé ANTONIO DE LA SANTíSIMA TRINIDAD BOLíVAR PALACIOS PONTE Y BLANCO (Spanish: ( listen ); 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as SIMóN BOLíVAR and also colloquially as El Libertador , was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela
Venezuela
, Bolivia
Bolivia
, Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Peru
Peru
and Panama
Panama
as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule . Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and, as was common for the heirs of upper class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain
Spain
when he was 16 and later moving to France
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History Of The Ecuadorian–peruvian Territorial Dispute
The TERRITORIAL DISPUTE BETWEEN ECUADOR AND PERU was the source of the longest-running international armed conflict in the Western Hemisphere. This dispute was a consequence of each country's interpretation of what Real Cedulas (Royal Proclamations) Spain used to precisely define its colonial territories in the Americas. After independence all of Spain's colonial territories signed and agreed to proclaim their limits in the basis of the principle uti possidetis juris which accepts the Spanish colonial borders of 1810 as the borders of the new republics. Thus the borders of Gran Colombia
Colombia
which included Ecuador, Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela
Venezuela
would follow the borders of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, and Peru
Peru
the Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
in 1810
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Military History Of Ecuador
The MILITARY HISTORY OF ECUADOR spans hundreds of years. CONTENTS * 1 The Gran-Colombian era * 2 Separation and early republic * 3 Civil war * 4 Struggle and emancipation * 5 Politics, war and defeat * 6 Regaining strength * 7 Paquisha War * 8 Cenepa War * 9 Past and present * 10 See also * 11 References THE GRAN-COLOMBIAN ERA The Battle of Camino Real, 1820, was the first battle between royalists and rebel forces in the Ecuadorian War of Independence
Ecuadorian War of Independence
. Ecuador's military history dates back to its first attempt to secure freedom from Spain in 1811. The rebel forces of the newly declared independent state of Quito
Quito
attempted to extend their control to other parts of the territory but proved little match against the royalist army dispatched by the Viceroy of Peru
Peru

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Ecuador
Coordinates : 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500 REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR República del Ecuador
Ecuador
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish ) * "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin ) * "God, homeland and freedom" ANTHEM: Salve, Oh Patria (Spanish) Hail, Oh Homeland Location of
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Bahía De Caráquez
BAHíA DE CARáQUEZ, officially known as SAN ANTONIO DE CARAQUEZ and founded under the name of VILLA DE SAN ANTONIO DE LA BAHíA DE CARáQUEZ or simply known today as BAHíA, formerly called Bahía de los Caras during the period of the Spanish conquest, is a coastal city belonging to the Sucre county, in the Ecuadorian province of Manabí . The city is located on a sandy peninsula on the country's western coast at the mouth of the Río Chone and has considerable tourism infrastructure that positions it as the main regional town. It has seen significant development during the last 15 to 20 years, particularly because it has become a vacation destination for people from Quito
Quito
and Guayaquil . The city is located one hour north of the city of Manta and in the pre-Columbian era was host to the ancient Indian city of Caran. Across the bay is the town of San Vicente
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Capulí Culture
The CAPULí CULTURE refers to an archaeological classification for a group in Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
South America
South America
on the Andean plain in what is now northern Ecuador
Ecuador
and southern Colombia
Colombia
. The Capulí preceded the Piartal and Tuza cultures in the archaeological record ranging from around 800 to 1500 CE. The Capulí culture
Capulí culture
left a strong record through its pottery . The Capulí had distinctive black on dark red pottery with rectilinear geometric designs. The anthropomorphic pottery statues of the Capulí can be striking. Women are depicted with a wrap that extends from the armpit to the ankle while men have loincloths and are often shown with an object such as a drum or animal. These figures are often called coqueros because they are depicted with wads of coca leaves in their mouths
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Quitu
The QUITUS were Pre-Columbian indigenous peoples in Ecuador
Ecuador
who founded Quito
Quito
, which is now the capital of Ecuador
Ecuador
. The inhabitants' existence spanned from 2000 BCE to the beginning of the Spanish conquest of the city in 1524. Their occupation spanned from the strip of land from Cerro del Panecillo in the south, to plaza de San Blas in the centre is the area where these first inhabitants lived. Today this strip has extended to become the great city it is now. The Quitus are responsible for the capital's name, and are of unknown relation to the town of Iquitos
Iquitos
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Organization * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe Quitu people were conquered by the Cara culture . Juan de Velasco wrote in his 1767 book, Historia del Reino de Quito, the Cara founded the Kingdom of Quito
Quito
around 980 CE
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Pachacuti
PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI or PACHAKUTIQ INKA YUPANKI (Quechua ) was the ninth Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
(1438–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
(Tawantinsuyu). Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
was built as an estate for Pachacuti. In Quechua Pachakutiq means "he who overturns space and time" (though more commonly translated as "earth shaker"), and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú . He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America
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Cuzco
CUSCO (Spanish: Cuzco, ; Quechua : Qusqu or Qosqo, IPA: ), often spelled CUZCO (/ˈkuːskoʊ/ ), is a city in southeastern Peru
Peru
, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province
Cusco Province
. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year
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Smallpox
SMALLPOX was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin
Latin
names VARIOLA or VARIOLA VERA, derived from varius ("spotted") or varus ("pimple"). The disease was originally known in English as the "POX" or "RED PLAGUE"; the term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the "great pox" (syphilis ). The last naturally occurring case of smallpox (Variola minor) was diagnosed on 26 October 1977. Infection with smallpox is focused in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat before disseminating. In the skin it results in a characteristic maculopapular rash and, later, raised fluid-filled blisters . V. major produced a more serious disease and had an overall mortality rate of 30–35 percent. V. minor caused a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim ) which killed about 1 percent of those it infects
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