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La Ferrassie 1
La Ferrassie
La Ferrassie
1 is a male Neanderthal
Neanderthal
skeleton estimated to be 70–50,000 years old. It was discovered at the La Ferrassie
La Ferrassie
site in France
France
by Louis Capitan and Denis Peyrony in 1909. The skull is the most complete Neanderthal
Neanderthal
skull ever found.[1] With a cranial capacity of 1641 cm3, it is the second largest hominid skull ever discovered, after Amud 1, another Neanderthal. The skull displays many of the "classic" examples of Neanderthal anatomy, including a low sloping forehead and large nasal openings. His leg and feet bones makes it clear that Neanderthals walked upright like modern humans
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Mousterian
The Mousterian
Mousterian
(or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia. The Mousterian
Mousterian
largely defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age. It lasted roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP.Contents1 Naming 2 Characteristics 3 Locations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNaming[edit] The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, a rock shelter in the Dordogne
Dordogne
region of France.[3] Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe
Europe
and also the Near East
Near East
and North Africa
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Obi-Rakhmat Grotto
The Obi-Rakhmat Grotto
Obi-Rakhmat Grotto
is a Middle Paleolithic
Middle Paleolithic
prehistoric site that yielded Neanderthal
Neanderthal
fossils. It is a shallow karst cave near the junction of the Chatkal and Pskem Rivers at the southwestern end of the Talassky Alatau Range in the Tien Shan Mountains, 100 km (62 mi) northeast of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.Contents1 Excavations 2 Stratigraphy 3 Chronology 4 Fauna 5 Hominin remains5.1 OR 1 5.2 Morphology 5.3 DNA analysis6 See also 7 ReferencesExcavations[edit] The Obi-Rakhmat Grotto
Obi-Rakhmat Grotto
was discovered in 1962 by a team from the Institute of History and Archaeology of Uzbekistan, headed by A. R. Mukhamedzhanov. Initial excavations were carried out under the supervision of M. M. Gerasimov
M. M. Gerasimov
and H. K. Nasretdinov and from 1964 to 1965 by R. H. Suleimanov
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Châtelperronian
The Châtelperronian
Châtelperronian
is a claimed industry of the Upper Palaeolithic, the existence of which is debated. It represents both the only Upper Palaeolithic industry made by Neanderthals and the earliest Upper Palaeolithic industry in Central and Southwestern France, as well as in Northern Spain. It derives its name from the site of la Grotte des Fées, in Châtelperron, Allier, France. It is preceded by the Mousterian
Mousterian
industry, and lasted from c. 45,000 to c. 40,000 BP.[3] The industry produced denticulate stone tools and also a distinctive flint knife with a single cutting edge and a blunt, curved back. The use of ivory at Châtelperronian
Châtelperronian
sites appears to be more frequent than that of the later Aurignacian,[4] while antler tools have not been found
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Nahal Amud
Nahal Amud
Nahal Amud
(Hebrew: נחל עמוד‎), also known as the Wadi
Wadi
Amud, is a stream in the Upper Galilee
Upper Galilee
region of Israel
Israel
that flows into the Sea of Galilee.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]The namesake pillar of Nahal AmudThe source of the stream, Ramat Dalton, is located 800 meters above sea level. Its drainage basin includes the peaks of Mount Canaan (955 meters) and Mount Meron (1,204 meters) and flows south through eastern Galilee to the northwest part of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
– a height of less than 200 meters below sea level. The stream is named after a pillar that rises high above ground and is located near a channel of the stream near Kibbutz Hukok
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Homo Heidelbergensis
Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of the genus Homo
Homo
that lived in Africa, Europe
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Homo Antecessor
Homo
Homo
antecessor is an extinct human species (or subspecies) dating from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga
Juan Luis Arsuaga
and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro.[1] "The unique mix of modern and primitive traits led the researchers to deem the fossils a new species, H. antecessor, in 1997"
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Homo Erectus
Homo
Homo
erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.9 million years ago. It likely originated in East Africa
East Africa
and spread from there, beginning 1.8 million years ago, migrating throughout Eurasia.[2][3] There is an ongoing debate regarding the classification, ancestry, and progeny of Homo
Homo
erectus, especially in relation to Homo
Homo
ergaster, with two major positions: 1) H. erectus is the same species as H. ergaster, and thereby H. erectus is a direct ancestor of the later hominins including Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis, Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens; or, 2) it is in fact an Asian species distinct from African H
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Homo Habilis
Homo
Homo
habilis was a species of the tribe Hominini, during the Gelasian and early Calabrian stages of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
geological epoch, which lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.[1] The type specimen is OH 7, discovered in 1960 at Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
in Tanzania, associated with the Oldowan
Oldowan
lithic industry; the fossils were identified as a separate species of Homo
Homo
with the proposed binomial name of H. habilis ("handy man") in 1964.[2] In its appearance and morphology, H. habilis is the least similar to modern humans of all species in the genus Homo
Homo
(except the equally controversial H
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La Chapelle-aux-Saints
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. La Chapelle-aux-Saints
La Chapelle-aux-Saints
is a commune in the Corrèze
Corrèze
department in central France.Contents1 History1.1 Neanderthal
Neanderthal
skeleton 1.2 Modern period2 Population 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Neanderthal
Neanderthal
skeleton[edit] The La Chapelle-aux-Saints
La Chapelle-aux-Saints
cave, bordering the Sourdoire valley, revealed many archeological artifacts belonging to the late Mousterian techno-complex,[1] including the first ever recognized Neanderthal burial discovered on August 3, 1908.[2] Jean and Amédée Bouyssonie, as well as L
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National Museum Of Natural History
The National Museum
Museum
of Natural History
Natural History
is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States. It has free admission and is open 364 days a year
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Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama
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Human Evolution
Human
Human
evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo
Homo
– and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes
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Origins Of Us
Origins of Us is a British television series documentary series shown on BBC Two
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Neandertal (valley)
The Neandertal (/niˈændərˌtɑːl/; German: [neˈʔandɐtaːl]) (sometimes called "the Neander Valley" in English) is a small valley of the river Düssel
Düssel
in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 12 km (7.5 mi) east of Düsseldorf, the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia. The valley lies within the limits of the towns of Erkrath
Erkrath
and Mettmann. In August, 1856, the area became famous for the discovery of Neanderthal
Neanderthal
1, the first specimen of Homo neanderthalensis to be found. Neanderthal
Neanderthal
Museum, MettmannThe Neandertal was originally a limestone canyon widely known for its rugged scenery, waterfalls and caves. However, industrial quarrying during the 19th and 20th centuries removed most of the limestone and dramatically changed the shape of the valley
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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