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Route Of Administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.[1] Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
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Molar Mass
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.[1] The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg/mol
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5-MeO-BFE
Dimemebfe
Dimemebfe
(5-MeO-BFE) is a recreational drug[1] and research chemical. It acts as an agonist for the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 family of serotonin receptors. It is related in structure to the psychedelic tryptamine derivative 5-MeO-DMT, but with the indole nitrogen replaced by oxygen, making dimemebfe a benzofuran derivative. It is several times less potent as a serotonin agonist than 5-MeO-DMT
5-MeO-DMT
and with relatively more activity at 5-HT1A, but still shows strongest effects at the 5-HT2 family of receptors.[2] Legal status[edit] Dimemebfe
Dimemebfe
is a Schedule I controlled substance in the US state of Alabama.[3] See also[edit]5-MeO-DiBFReferences[edit]^ John F. Casale and Patrick A. Hays. "The Characterization of 2-(5-Methoxy-1-benzofuran-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine (5-MeO-BFE) and Differentiation from its N-Ethyl Analog" (PDF). Microgram Journal. 9 (1): 39–45.  ^ Tomaszewski, Z.; Johnson, M
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Substituted Benzofuran
The substituted benzofurans are a class of chemical compounds based on the heterocyclyc and polycyclic compound benzofuran. Some compounds in this class are psychoactive drugs including stimulants, psychedelics and empathogens
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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F-2 (drug)
F-2, or 6-(2-aminopropyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. F-2 was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL
PiHKAL
(Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 15 mg, and the duration unknown.[1] F-2 produces few to no effects at this dose, and it is unknown what (if any) effects it would produce if a higher dose were to be tried. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of F-2.Contents1 Legality1.1 United Kingdom2 References 3 External linksLegality[edit] United Kingdom[edit] This substance is a Class A drug in the Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act.[2] References[edit]^ Shulgin, Alexander; Ann Shulgin
Ann Shulgin
(September 1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley, California: Transform Press. ISBN 0-9630096-0-5
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JSmol
Jmol
Jmol
is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License
GNU Lesser General Public License
(LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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ChEMBL
Ch EMBL
EMBL
or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties.[1] It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute
European Bioinformatics Institute
(EBI), of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory
Laboratory
(EMBL), based at the Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. The database, originally known as StARlite, was developed by a biotechnology company called Inpharmatica Ltd. later acquired by Galapagos NV
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ChemSpider
ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]Contents1 Database 2 Crowdsourcing 3 Searching 4 Chemistry document mark-up 5 History 6 Services6.1 SyntheticPages 6.2 Open PHACTS7 See also 8 ReferencesDatabase[edit] The database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including:EPA DSSTox[14][15] U.S
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Excretion
Excretion
Excretion
is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism. In vertebrates this is primarily carried out by the lungs, kidneys and skin.[1] This is in contrast with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell. Excretion
Excretion
is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in mammals urine is expelled through the urethra, which is part of the excretory system. In unicellular organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. Green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis. Oxygen
Oxygen
is a by product generated during photosynthesis, and exits through stomata, root cell walls, and other routes
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Drug Metabolism
Drug
Drug
metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism (from the Greek xenos "stranger" and biotic "related to living beings") is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemistry, such as any drug or poison. These pathways are a form of biotransformation present in all major groups of organisms, and are considered to be of ancient origin. These reactions often act to detoxify poisonous compounds (although in some cases the intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism can themselves cause toxic effects). The study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine. For example, the rate of metabolism determines the duration and intensity of a drug's pharmacologic action
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