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LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated.[5] When a suitable current is applied to the leads,[6][7] electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs
LEDs
are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern.[8] Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs
LEDs
emitted low-intensity infrared light.[9] Infrared
Infrared
LEDs
LEDs
are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics
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RCA
The RCA
RCA
Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio
Radio
Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a wholly owned subsidiary of General Electric
General Electric
(GE); however, in 1932, GE was required to divest its control as part of the settlement of an antitrust suit. At its height as an independent company, RCA
RCA
was the dominant communications firm in the United States. Beginning in the early 1920s, RCA
RCA
was a major manufacturer of radio receivers, and also developed the first national radio network, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). It had a leading role in the introduction of black-and-white television in the 1940s and 1950s, and color television in the 1950s and 1960s
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Electric Current
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.[1]:2 In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).[2] The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter.[3] Electric currents cause Joule
Joule
heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within the metal
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Texas
Texas
Texas
(/ˈtɛksəs/, locally /-sɪz/; Spanish: Texas
Texas
or Tejas [ˈtexas]) is the second largest state in the United States
United States
by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas
Texas
shares borders with the U.S
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Dallas
Dallas, officially City
City
of Dallas, is within the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.[8] Dallas
Dallas
is a modern metropolis city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Texas
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Silicon-germanium
SiGe (/ˈsɪɡiː/ or /ˈsaɪdʒiː/), or silicon-germanium, is an alloy with any molar ratio of silicon and germanium, i.e. with a molecular formula of the form Si1−xGex. It is commonly used as a semiconductor material in integrated circuits (ICs) for heterojunction bipolar transistors or as a strain-inducing layer for CMOS transistors. IBM
IBM
introduced the technology into mainstream manufacturing in 1989.[1] This relatively new technology offers opportunities in mixed-signal circuit and analog circuit IC design and manufacture
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Indium Phosphide
Indium
Indium
phosphide (InP) is a binary semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus. It has a face-centered cubic ("zincblende") crystal structure, identical to that of GaAs and most of the III-V semiconductors.Contents1 Manufacturing 2 Uses 3 Chemistry 4 References 5 External linksManufacturing[edit] Indium
Indium
phosphide nanocrystalline surface obtained by electrochemical etching and viewed under scanning electron microscope
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Gallium Arsenide
Gallium
Gallium
arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic
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Radio Corporation Of America
The RCA
RCA
Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio
Radio
Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a wholly owned subsidiary of General Electric
General Electric
(GE); however, in 1932, GE was required to divest its control as part of the settlement of an antitrust suit. At its height as an independent company, RCA
RCA
was the dominant communications firm in the United States. Beginning in the early 1920s, RCA
RCA
was a major manufacturer of radio receivers, and also developed the first national radio network, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). It had a leading role in the introduction of black-and-white television in the 1940s and 1950s, and color television in the 1950s and 1960s
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Kurt Lehovec
Kurt Lehovec
Kurt Lehovec
(June 12, 1918 – February 17, 2012) was one of the pioneers of the integrated circuit. He innovated the concept of p-n junction isolation used in every circuit element with a guard ring: a reverse-biased p-n junction surrounding the planar periphery of that element. This patent was assigned to Sprague Electric.[1][2] Because Lehovec was under salary with Sprague, he was paid only one dollar for this invention. Lehovec was born June 12, 1918 in Ledvice, in northern Bohemia, of the Czech Republic. He was educated there and went to the US in 1947 under the auspices of Operation Paperclip[3] which allowed scientists and engineers to emigrate. With Carl Accardo and Edward Jamgochian, he explained the first light-emitting diodes[4] citing previous work by Oleg Losev. The important case of fast ionic conduction in solid states is one in a surface space-charge layer of ionic crystals. Such conduction was first predicted by K
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Cat's-whisker Detector
A crystal detector[1] [2] is an electronic component used to rectify radio frequency alternating current[3]. The "asymmetric conduction" of crystals was discovered in 1874 by Karl Ferdinand Braun, and the first crystal detectors were used to receive radio waves by Braun and Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
in 1894, and improved around 1904 by radio researchers such as Henry H. C. Dunwoody and G. W. Pickard, this device was used as the detector in early crystal radios, from the early twentieth century through World War II, and gave this type of radio receiver its name. Crystal
Crystal
radios were the most popular type of radio until the mid 1920s
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Marconi Company
The Marconi Company
Marconi Company
was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987. It was derived from earlier variations in the name and incorporation, spanning a period from its inception in 1897 until 2006, during which time it underwent numerous changes, mergers and acquisitions. The company was founded by the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
and began as the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. The company was a pioneer of wireless long distance communication and mass media broadcasting, eventually becoming one of the UK's most successful manufacturing companies. In 1999, its defence manufacturing division, Marconi Electronic Systems, merged with British Aerospace
British Aerospace
to form BAE Systems
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Visible Spectrum
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation
in this range of wavelengths is called visible light or simply light. A typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from about 390 to 700 nm.[1] In terms of frequency, this corresponds to a band in the vicinity of 430–770 THz. The spectrum does not, however, contain all the colors that the human eyes and brain can distinguish. Unsaturated colors such as pink, or purple variations such as magenta, are absent, for example, because they can be made only by a mix of multiple wavelengths. Colors containing only one wavelength are also called pure colors or spectral colors. Visible wavelengths pass through the "optical window", the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that allows wavelengths to pass largely unattenuated through the Earth's atmosphere
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Band Gap
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap generally refers to the energy difference (in electron volts) between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. It is the energy required to promote a valence electron bound to an atom to become a conduction electron, which is free to move within the crystal lattice and serve as a charge carrier to conduct electric current. It is closely related to the HOMO/LUMO
HOMO/LUMO
gap in chemistry. If the valence band is completely full and the conduction band is completely empty, then electrons cannot move in the solid; however, if some electrons transfer from the valence to the conduction band, then current can flow (see carrier generation and recombination)
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Photon
A photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time
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Electron Hole
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice. Since in a normal atom or crystal lattice the negative charge of the electrons is balanced by the positive charge of the atomic nuclei, the absence of an electron leaves a net positive charge at the hole's location. Holes in a metal[1] or semiconductor crystal lattice can move through the lattice as electrons can, and act similarly to positively-charged particles. They play an important role in the operation of semiconductor devices such as transistors, diodes and integrated circuits. However they are not actually particles, but rather quasiparticles; they are different from the positron, which is the antiparticle of the electron. (See also Dirac Sea.) If an electron is excited into a higher state it leaves a hole in its old state
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