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L. E. Katterfeld
Ludwig Erwin Alfred "Dutch" Katterfeld (1881–1974), most commonly known as L. E. Katterfeld, was an American socialist politician, a founding member of the Communist Labor Party of America, a Comintern functionary, and a magazine editor.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Socialist
Socialist
Party years (1905–1919) 1.3 Communist Party years (1919–1929) 1.4 Post-Communist years (1927–1974) 1.5 Death and legacy2 Footnotes 3 Further reading 4 External links 5 See alsoBiography[edit] Early life[edit] L.E. Katterfeld (he seems to have generally used his initials in daily life) was born July 15, 1881 in Strasbourg, Alsace Lorraine, then part of the German Empire. He was the eldest of 4 children born to Dr. Alfred Katterfeld, a professor at the University of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and Adele Karpinski Katterfeld
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin)
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Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov,[a] better known by the alias Lenin[b] (/ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] 22 April 1870[2] – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia
Russia
from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia
Russia
and then the wider Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism. Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin
Lenin
embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution
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1919 Emergency National Convention
The 1919 Emergency National Convention of the Socialist Party of America was held in Chicago
Chicago
from August 30 to September 5, 1919. It was a seminal gathering in the history of American radicalism, marked by the bolting of the party's organized left wing to establish the Communist Labor Party of America.Contents1 History 2 Footnotes 3 Additional reading 4 External linksHistory[edit] The 1919 Emergency Convention was convened in response to pressure from the organized Left Wing Section of the Socialist Party, which originally sought the convention to solidify the SPA's position towards the socialist revolution in Russia. Instead, the gathering wound up being the nexus of the great showdown between the party Regulars, headed by National Executive Secretary Adolph Germer, National Executive Committee member James Oneal, and New York State Secretary Julius Gerber, and the Left Wing Section, headed by Alfred Wagenknecht and L.E. Katterfeld
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Clarence Darrow
Clarence Seward Darrow (/ˈdæroʊ/; April 18, 1857 – March 13, 1938) was an American lawyer, a leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, and a prominent advocate for Georgist
Georgist
economic reform. He defended high-profile clients in many famous trials of the early 20th century, including teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb for murdering 14-year-old Robert "Bobby" Franks (1924); teacher John T. Scopes in the Scopes "Monkey" Trial (1925), in which he opposed statesman and orator William Jennings Bryan; and Ossian Sweet
Ossian Sweet
in a racially-charged self-defense case (1926)
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Criminal Syndicalism
Criminal syndicalism has been defined as a doctrine of criminal acts for political, industrial, and social change
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Pseudonym
A pseudonym (/ˈsjuːdənɪm/ or /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SEW-də-nim) or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym).[1] Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names, pen names, nicknames, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors, popes, and other monarchs. Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms, and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym.[2] Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, and computer hackers' handles
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Communist International
The Communist International
Communist International
(Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state".[1] The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference
Zimmerwald Conference
in which Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
had organized the " Zimmerwald
Zimmerwald
Left" against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action, and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International. The Comintern held seven World Congresses in Moscow between 1919 and 1935
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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
"The Internationale" (1918–1944)"National Anthem of the Soviet Union" (1944–1990)"The Patriotic Song" (1990–1991)Extent of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
(red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) following World War II
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Joliet, Illinois
Joliet (/ˈdʒoʊli.ɛt/ or /dʒoʊliˈɛt/) is a city in Will and Kendall counties in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Illinois, 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Chicago
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Whittaker Chambers
Jay Vivian Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961), known as Whittaker Chambers, was an American editor who denounced his Communist spying and became respected by the American Conservative movement during the 1950s. After early years as a Communist Party member (1925) and Soviet spy (1932–1938), he defected from communism (underground and open party) and worked at Time magazine
Time magazine
(1939–1948). Under subpoena in 1948, he testified in what became Alger Hiss's perjury (espionage) trials (1949–1950) and he became an outspoken anti-communist (all described in his 1952 memoir Witness).[1] Afterwards, he worked briefly as a senior editor at National Review
National Review
(1957–1959)
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Jay Lovestone
Jay Lovestone
Jay Lovestone
(December 15, 1897 – March 7, 1990) was at various times a member of the Socialist Party of America, a leader of the Communist Party USA, leader of a small oppositionist party, an anti-Communist and Central Intelligence Agency
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Evolution
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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Scopes Trial
The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee
Tennessee
v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case in July 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school.[1] The trial was deliberately staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, where it was held. Scopes was unsure whether he had ever actually taught evolution, but he purposely incriminated himself so that the case could have a defendant.[2][3] Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 ($1395 in 2017), but the verdict was overturned on a technicality. The trial served its purpose of drawing intense national publicity, as national reporters flocked to Dayton to cover the big-name lawyers who had agreed to represent each side
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Fundamentalism
Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.[1] However, fundamentalism has come to be applied to a tendency among certain groups—mainly, though not exclusively, in religion—that is characterized by a markedly strict literalism as it is applied to certain specific scriptures, dogmas, or ideologies, and a strong sense of the importance of maintaining ingroup and outgroup distinctions,[2][3][4][5] leading to an emphasis on purity and the desire to return to a previous ideal from which advocates believe members have strayed
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