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Kwanzaa Candles
Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(/ˈkwɑːn.zə/) is a celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the African diaspora
African diaspora
in the Americas and lasts a week. The celebration honors African heritage in African-American culture and is observed from December 26 to January 1, culminating in a feast and gift-giving.[1] Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
has seven core principles (Nguzo Saba)
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Cuanza River
The Cuanza River, also known as the Coanza,[1] the Quanza,[1] and the Kwanza,[citation needed] is a river in Angola. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
just south of the national capital Luanda.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Wildlife 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References6.1 Citations 6.2 Bibliography7 External linksGeography[edit] The river is navigable for about 150 miles (240 km) from its mouth, located 60 kilometers (37 mi) south of Luanda. Its tributaries included the Cutato and Lucala. History[edit] The river's navigable lower course was the original route of Portugal invasion into northern Angola. The Capanda Dam
Capanda Dam
in Malanje Province
Malanje Province
was finished in 2004, providing hydroelectric power to the region and assisting its irrigation
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African Dance
African dance
African dance
refers mainly to the dance of Sub-Saharan Africa, and more appropriately African dances because of the many cultural differences in musical and movement styles. These dances must be viewed in close connection with Sub-Saharan African music traditions and Bantu cultivation of rhythm. African dance
African dance
utilizes the concept of as well as total body articulation.[1]Members from the Kankouran West African Dance Company perform during a ceremony in the Rose Garden, White House in 2007Dances teach social patterns and values and help people work, mature, praise or criticize members of the community while celebrating festivals and funerals, competing, reciting history, proverbs and poetry; and to encounter gods.[2] African dances are largely participatory, with spectators being part of the performance
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Pan-African Flag
The Pan-African flag
Pan-African flag
— also known as the UNIA
UNIA
flag, Afro-American flag and Black
Black
Liberation Flag — is a tri-color flag consisting of three equal horizontal bands of (from top down) red, black and green. The Universal Negro Improvement Association
Universal Negro Improvement Association
and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) formally adopted it on August 13, 1920 in Article 39 of the Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World,[1] during its month-long convention at Madison Square Garden in New York City.[2][3] Variations of the flag can and have been used in various countries and territories in Africa
Africa
and the Americas
Americas
to represent Pan-Africanist ideologies
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Kente
Kente, known as nwentom in Akan, is a type of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips and is native to the Akan ethnic group of South Ghana. Kente
Kente
is made in Akan lands such as Ashanti Kingdom, (Bonwire, Adanwomase, Sakora Wonoo, Ntonso in the Kwabre areas of the Ashanti Region) It is also worn by many other groups who have been influenced by Akans. Kente
Kente
comes from the word kenten, which means basket in Akan dialect Asante. Akans refer to kente as nwentoma, meaning woven cloth. It is an Akan royal and sacred cloth worn only in times of extreme importance and was the cloth of kings. Over time, the use of kente became more widespread
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Wrapper (clothing)
The wrapper, lappa, or pagne is a colorful garment widely worn in West Africa by both men and women. It has formal and informal versions and varies from simple draped clothing to fully tailored ensembles. The formality of the wrapper depends on the fabric used to create it.Contents1 West African kaftan/boubou 2 Yoruba iro 3 Pagne 4 In the West 5 Informal fabrics 6 Formal fabrics 7 Wedding
Wedding
attire 8 Buba 9 See also 10 References 11 Further readingWest African kaftan/boubou[edit] In West Africa, a kaftan or caftan is a pull-over woman's robe.[1] In French, this robe is called a boubou, pronounced boo-boo. The boubou is the traditional female attire in many West African countries including Senegal, Mali
Mali
and other countries. The boubou can be formal or informal attire
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Libations
A libation is a ritual pouring of a liquid (ex: milk or other fluids such as corn flour mixed with water), or grains such as rice, as an offering to a god or spirit, or in memory of those who have "passed on". It was common in many religions of antiquity and continues to be offered in various cultures today. Various substances have been used for libations, most commonly wine or olive oil, and in India, ghee. The vessels used in the ritual, including the patera, often had a significant form which differentiated them from secular vessels
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Pan-African Colors
The term Pan-African colours
Pan-African colours
are either of two different sets of three colours: red, gold (not yellow), and green (inspired by the flag of Ethiopia), and red, black, and green. They are used in flags and other emblems of various countries and territories in Africa
Africa
and the Americas
Americas
to represent Pan-Africanist ideology
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Karamu (feast)
A Karamu Ya Imani (Feast of Feasts) is a feast that takes place on December 31, the sixth day of the Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
period. A Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
ceremony may include drumming and musical selections, libations, a reading of the African Pledge and the Principles of Blackness, reflection on the Pan-African colors, a discussion of the African principle of the day or a chapter in African history, a candle-lighting ritual, artistic performance, and, finally, a feast, a Karamu. The Karamu feast was developed in Chicago
Chicago
during a 1971 citywide movement of Pan-African organizations. It was proposed by Hannibal Afrik of Shule ya Matoto as a communitywide promotonial and educational campaign
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Christmas
Christmas
Christmas
is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,[8][9] observed primarily on December 25[4][10][11] as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.[2][12][13] A feast central to the Christian
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New Year's
New Year
New Year
is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one. Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner[1] and the 1st day of January is often marked as a national holiday. In the Gregorian calendar, the most widely used calendar system today, New Year
New Year
occurs on January 1 (New Year's Day)
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John F. Kennedy Center For The Performing Arts
The John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Center for the Performing Arts (formally called the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memorial Center for the Performing Arts, and commonly referred to as the Kennedy Center) is a performing arts center located on the Potomac River, adjacent to the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The center, which opened September 8, 1971, is a multi-dimensional facility, and as memorial to John F. Kennedy
John F

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Interpretive Dance
Interpretive dance
Interpretive dance
is a family of modern dance styles that began around 1900 with Isadora Duncan. It used classical concert music but marked a departure from traditional concert dance.[1][2][3] It seeks to translate human emotions, conditions, situations or fantasies into movement and dramatic expression, or else adapts traditional ethnic movements into more modern expressions.[4] The effect of interpretive dance can be seen in many Broadway musicals as well as in other media. While it was—and most often, still is—thought of as a performing art, interpretive dance does not have to be performed with music. It often includes grandiloquent movements of the arms, turns and drops to the floor. It is frequently enhanced by lavish costumes, ribbons or spandex body suits. References[edit]^ Making Music For Modern Dance. Oxford University Press. p. 33–. ISBN 978-0-19-991148-6.  ^ Elizabeth Kendall (1979)
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National Retail Federation
The National Retail
Retail
Federation (NRF) is the world's largest retail trade association.[1] Its members include department stores, specialty, discount, catalog, Internet, and independent retailers, chain restaurants, and grocery stores. Members also include businesses that provide goods and services to retailers, such as vendors and technology providers. NRF represents an industry that contains over 1.6 million U.S. retail establishments with more than 24 million employees and (2005) sales of $4.4 trillion
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Cooperative Economics
Co-operative economics
Co-operative economics
is a field of economics that incorporates co-operative studies and political economy toward the study and management of co-operatives.[1]Contents1 History 2 Co-operative federalism versus co-operative individualism2.1 Co-operative federalism 2.2 Co-operative Individualism3 Other schools3.1 Retailers' cooperatives 3.2 Socialism
Socialism
and left-wing anarchism 3.3 Co-operative commonwealth4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Notable theoreticians who have contributed to the field include Robert Owen,[2] Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Charles Gide,[3] Beatrice and Sydney Webb,[4] J.T.W. Mitchell, Peter Kropotkin,[5] Paul Lambart,[6] Race Mathews,[7] David Griffiths,[8] and G.D.H
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University Of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota
Minnesota
(often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and St. Paul campuses are approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) apart, and the St
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