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Kurdish Principalities
The Kurdish chiefdoms
Kurdish chiefdoms
or principalities were several semi-independent entities which existed during the 16th to 19th centuries during the state of continuous warfare between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Safavid Iran.[1] The Kurdish principalities were almost always divided and entered into rivalries against each other.[1] The demarcation of borders between the Safavid
Safavid
Shah Safi and the Ottoman caliph Sultan Murad IV
Murad IV
in 1639 effectively divided Kurdistan between the two empires.[1] The eyalet of Diyarbakir
Diyarbakir
was the center of the major and minor Kurdish chiefdoms
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Perpetual War
Perpetual war, endless war, or a forever war, is a lasting state of war with no clear conditions that would lead to its conclusion.[citation needed] These wars are situations of ongoing tension that may escalate at any moment, similar to the Cold War. Today, the concepts are used to critique the United States Armed Forces interventions in foreign nations and the military–industrial complex, or wars with ambiguous enemies such as the War
War
on Terror or the
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Erzenjan
Erzincan
Erzincan
(pronounced [eɾˈzindʒan])[3] (Armenian: Երզնկա, Yerznka) is the capital of Erzincan Province
Erzincan Province
in northeastern Turkey. Nearby cities include Erzurum, Sivas, Tunceli, Bingöl, Elâzığ, Malatya, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, and Giresun. Located at an altitude of 1,185 meters above sea level, the city's climate produces snowy winters and warm summers. The city is notable for handcrafted copper goods and a special cheese called "tulum peyniri" in Turkish. It is a significant road and rail junction and was once noted for its silverware. Current industries include sugar refining and textile industries
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Bîcar
Bījār (Persian: بیجار‎; Sorani Kurdish: بیجاڕ‎,[1] Kurdish: Bîcar‎) is a city and capital of Bijar
Bijar
County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 47,926, in 14,970 families.[2] Ethnically the population is predominantly Kurdish-speaking Shia Kurds.[3] With an elevation of 1,940 metres, Bijar
Bijar
has been called the Roof of Iran.[4] Bijar
Bijar
in the First World WarThe term bijar could be a variation of bajar (i.e. city in Kurdish) and the complete name of the city Bijar-e Garrus (city of Garrus, the old name for the province)
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Biré
Birecik
Birecik
(Greek and Latin: Birtha, Βίρθα; Arabic: البيرة‎, translit. al-Bīrah; Kurdish: Bêrecûg‎, Ottoman Turkish: بيره جك‎), also formerly known as Bir, Biré, Biradjik and during the Crusades as Bile, is a town and district of Şanlıurfa Province of Turkey, on the River Euphrates. Built on a limestone cliff 400 ft. high on the left/east bank of the Euphrates, "at the upper part of a reach of that river, which runs nearly north-south, and just below a sharp bend in the stream, where it follows that course after coming from a long reach flowing more from the west".[3]Contents1 Archaeology 2 Ancient city 3 Bishopric 4 Modern history 5 See also 6 References 7 Exrenal linksArchaeology[edit] Birecik Dam Cemetery
Birecik Dam Cemetery
is an Early Bronze Age cemetery near Birecik. It was used extensively for about 500 years at the beginning of the third millennium BC
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Biradjik
Birecik
Birecik
(Greek and Latin: Birtha, Βίρθα; Arabic: البيرة‎, translit. al-Bīrah; Kurdish: Bêrecûg‎, Ottoman Turkish: بيره جك‎), also formerly known as Bir, Biré, Biradjik and during the Crusades as Bile, is a town and district of Şanlıurfa Province of Turkey, on the River Euphrates. Built on a limestone cliff 400 ft. high on the left/east bank of the Euphrates, "at the upper part of a reach of that river, which runs nearly north-south, and just below a sharp bend in the stream, where it follows that course after coming from a long reach flowing more from the west".[3]Contents1 Archaeology 2 Ancient city 3 Bishopric 4 Modern history 5 See also 6 References 7 Exrenal linksArchaeology[edit] Birecik Dam Cemetery
Birecik Dam Cemetery
is an Early Bronze Age cemetery near Birecik. It was used extensively for about 500 years at the beginning of the third millennium BC
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Cammasa
Jemasa, Jammasa or Al Jammasa (الجمّاسة; Turkish: Cammasa; Kurdish: Gammasa‎) a Euphrates Arab tribal Federation that was centered around the Lower Khabur region. The 17th century Cammasa/Jemasa district in Eyalet of Raqqa was named after the tribe then dominant at that region.[1][2] Kurdish Chiefdom[edit] In the 16th century the Emirate of Cammasa was under the rule of a Kurdish prince, until 1628 when it was transferred to direct Ottoman rule from Urfa then the new capital of the new Eyalet of Raqqa See also[edit]Diyar Mudar Kurdish chiefdomsReferences[edit]^ "موقع الرقة - "الجمّاسة"... عيال الغشيم". esyria.sy. Retrieved 2017-11-24.  ^ "Raqqa, territoires et pratiques sociales d'une ville syrienne - Chapitre 1. « Politique des chefs » en Jazîra et « politique des notables » à Raqqa : la naissance d'une ville de front pionnier (1865-1946) - Presses de l'Ifpo". books.openedition.org
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Çemişgezek
Çemişgezek
Çemişgezek
(Armenian: Չմշկածագ Čmškacag),[1] Ottoman Turkish: چمشکزک‎, Kurdish: Melkişî‎, Medieval Greek: Chosomachon) is a small Turkish city and its surrounding district in Tunceli Province
Tunceli Province
of Turkey. The city has a population of 2,819, while whole district has a population of 7,929
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Shekhan District
The Shekhan District
Shekhan District
is a district in the Nineveh Governorate
Nineveh Governorate
of Iraq with its capital at Ain Sifni.[1] It is bordered by the
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Deyr ü Rahba
Deyr ü Rahba (دير الرهبة) listed as a district of the Abbasid province of Diyar Bakr, the Arabic name means the land of the Priests (geographically Syriac Priests), the name remained in use for a Kurdish chiefdom until 1626 when the whole district was transferred to Eyalet Raqqa.[1] References[edit]^ http://www.let.uu.nl/~martin.vanbruinessen/personal/publications/Evliya/Evliya%20in%20Diyarbekir_Ch_2_Ottoman.pdfThis article about a Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey location is a stub
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Ergani
Ergani
Ergani
(Ottoman Turkish: عثمانيه‎ Osmaniye,[3] Kurdish: Erxenî‎,[citation needed] Zazaki: Erğeni[citation needed]), formerly known as Arghni or Arghana, is a district of Diyarbakır Province of Turkey. The mayor is Ramazan Kartalmiş (BDP).Contents1 Çayönü 2 Climate 3 History 4 History 5 Transportation 6 Ethnic structure 7 Education 8 See also 9 References 10 External links 11 LiteratureÇayönü[edit] Near the village of Sesverenpınar, among the Hilar rocks Çayönü hill was first settled in c. 7500 BC, and was continuously inhabited until 5000 BC (but only occasionally since then). Remains have been found from the earlier habitation, one of the most important archaeological finds of its era.[citation needed] We can see evidence of an early city from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, when nomadic hunter-gatherers began to settle in one place
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Erzincan
Erzincan
Erzincan
(pronounced [eɾˈzindʒan])[3] (Armenian: Երզնկա, Yerznka) is the capital of Erzincan Province
Erzincan Province
in northeastern Turkey. Nearby cities include Erzurum, Sivas, Tunceli, Bingöl, Elâzığ, Malatya, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, and Giresun. Located at an altitude of 1,185 meters above sea level, the city's climate produces snowy winters and warm summers. The city is notable for handcrafted copper goods and a special cheese called "tulum peyniri" in Turkish. It is a significant road and rail junction and was once noted for its silverware. Current industries include sugar refining and textile industries
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Eski Mosul
Nineveh
Nineveh
(/ˈnɪnɪvə/; Akkadian: 𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua) ; Syriac: ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ‎ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul
Mosul
in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris
Tigris
River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nowadays it is a common name for the half of Mosul
Mosul
which lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris. It was the largest city in the world for some fifty years[1] until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate
Ninawa Governorate
of Iraq
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Lice, Turkey
Lice (pronounced [ˈlidʒe]), (Ottoman Turkish: ليجه‎,[3] Kurdish: Licê, لجێ‎,[citation needed] Zazaki: Lıcê)[citation needed] is a Kurdish district of Diyarbakır Province
Diyarbakır Province
in Turkey. The population was 9,644 in 2010. It is located 90 km (56 mi) from the capital, Diyarbakır. The mayor is Rezan Zoğurlu (BDP). The Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
or PKK, was founded in the village of Fis, in Lice district on November 27, 1978.[4] The Kurdish castle of Ataq used to exist near the modern Lidze. References[edit]^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.  ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute
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Genç, Bingöl
Genç (Kurdish: Dara Hênî[3]), is a town and district of Bingöl Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The mayor is Mehmet Hadi Topraktan (AKP).Contents1 Geography 2 Population 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] The town is located close to the southern banks of the Murat River
Murat River
or Eastern Euphrates. The district has an area of 1,646 km², which is 20.26% of the area of its province. The central city is 20 km away from the nearest city. Its center is 1125 m above sea level. Within the boundaries of the district, along with the central city, are two towns, 62 villages, and 243 hamlets. Population[edit] The population of Genç district was 35,208 in 2011, of which 19,123 live in the city itself.[4] The population density of the district in 2000 was 22 persons per square kilometer. See also[edit]ZazakiReferences[edit]^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database
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Hançük
Genç (Kurdish: Dara Hênî[3]), is a town and district of Bingöl Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The mayor is Mehmet Hadi Topraktan (AKP).Contents1 Geography 2 Population 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] The town is located close to the southern banks of the Murat River
Murat River
or Eastern Euphrates. The district has an area of 1,646 km², which is 20.26% of the area of its province. The central city is 20 km away from the nearest city. Its center is 1125 m above sea level. Within the boundaries of the district, along with the central city, are two towns, 62 villages, and 243 hamlets. Population[edit] The population of Genç district was 35,208 in 2011, of which 19,123 live in the city itself.[4] The population density of the district in 2000 was 22 persons per square kilometer. See also[edit]ZazakiReferences[edit]^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database
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