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Kurapaty
KURAPATY (Belarusian : Курапаты, IPA: ) is a wooded area on the outskirts of Minsk
Minsk
, Belarus
Belarus
, in which a vast number of people were executed between 1937 and 1941 during the Great Purge
Great Purge
by the Soviet secret police , the NKVD
NKVD
. The exact count of victims is uncertain, NKVD
NKVD
archives are classified in Belarus
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Political Repression
POLITICAL REPRESSION is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens. Political repression is sometimes used synonymously with the term political discrimination (also known as politicism). It often is manifested through discriminatory policies, such as human rights violations, surveillance abuse , police brutality , imprisonment , involuntary settlement , stripping of citizen\'s rights , lustration and violent action or terror such as the murder, summary executions , torture , forced disappearance and other extrajudicial punishment of political activists , dissidents , or general population. Where political repression is sanctioned and organised by the state, it may constitute state terrorism , genocide , politicide or crimes against humanity
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Crime Against Humanity
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
. Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts – such as the International Court of Justice
Justice
and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court, as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative
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Dem'ianiv Laz
DEM\'IANIV LAZ (Ukrainian : Дем'янів Лаз, Polish : Demianów Łaz) is a mass burial site of victims of the Soviet extrajudicial killings committed in the wake of the Nazi German takeover of Stanisławów (modern Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine ) in 1941. At least 524 Polish captives (including 150 women with dozens of children) were shot by the NKVD and buried in several mass graves dug by the prisoners themselves in a small gorge outside of the city. CONTENTS * 1 Killings * 2 Cover up * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References KILLINGSThe mass murder site was located in the vicinity of a small village called Pasieczna in Soviet-occupied Poland , in a gorge called Demianów Łaz at the outskirts of Stanisławów (Ivano-Frankivsk since 1962). Some of the earlier victims were killed in the infamous NKVD prison in Stanisławów, others were brought to the site ahead of time in order to dig mass graves prior to their own execution
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Belarusian Language
BELARUSIAN (/bɛləˈruːsiən/ ; беларуская мова belaruskaya mova ) is an official language of Belarus , along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Russia , Ukraine , and small parts in far-eastern Poland . Before Belarus gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the language was known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык, or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/ ) or White Russian (with the meaning Rus' but not Russia). Following independence, it also became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian , Ukrainian , and Belarusian are mutually intelligible
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Jew
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 Yhudim, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
. Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism
Judaism
is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews
Jews
originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant
Levant
known as the Land of Israel
Israel

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Nuclear Weapons
A NUCLEAR WEAPON is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions , either fission (fission bomb ) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb ). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation . Since they are weapons of mass destruction , the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Zubr (political Organization)
ZUBR (Belarusian : ЗУБР) was a civic youth organization in Belarus backed and funded by the United States and western powers in opposition to President Alyaksandr Lukashenka . The organization drew inspiration from Otpor! student movement (formerly of Yugoslavia ) which contributed to the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević in 2000, and from Gene Sharp 's writings on nonviolent action . Zubr became noticed internationally in 2005 when US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice , who was visiting Lithuania, met their leaders –, who risked imprisonment upon their return. Some reporters have credited Zubr's leaders with the idea of a \'Denim Revolution\' , which, they hoped would attract popular support as Ukraine 's Orange Revolution and Georgia 's Rose Revolution
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Slavic Review
The SLAVIC REVIEW is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia
Russia
, Central Eurasia
Eurasia
, and Eastern and Central Europe
Central Europe
. The journal's title, though pointing to its roots in Slavic studies , does not fully encompass the range of disciplines represented or peoples and cultures examined. HISTORYThe journal has been published quarterly under the current name since 1961 by the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (since 2010 named Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies , continuing the series published by the same association since 1941 under different names: Slavonic Year-Book. American Series (1941), Slavonic and East European Review
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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USSR Anti-religious Campaign (1921–1928)
The USSR ANTI-RELIGIOUS CAMPAIGN (1921–1928) was a campaign of anti-religious persecution against churches and believers by the Soviet government
Soviet government
following the initial anti-religious campaign during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
. The elimination of most religion and its replacement with deism, agnosticism and atheism supported with a materialist world view was a fundamental ideological goal of the state. To this end the state conducted anti-religious persecutions against believers that were meant to hurt and destroy religion. It was never made illegal to be a believer or to have religion, and so the activities of this campaign were often veiled under other pretexts (usually resistance to the regime) that the state invoked or invented in order to justify its activities. In the late 1920s St Volodymyr\'s Cathedral in Kiev
Kiev
was used as an anti-religious museum
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USSR Anti-religious Campaign (1928–1941)
The USSR ANTI-RELIGIOUS CAMPAIGN OF 1928–1941 was a new phase of anti-religious persecution in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
following the anti-religious campaign of 1921–1928 . The campaign began in 1929, with the drafting of new legislation that severely prohibited religious activities and called for a heightened attack on religion in order to further disseminate atheism . This had been preceded in 1928 at the fifteenth party congress , where Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
criticized the party for failure to produce more active and persuasive anti-religious propaganda . This new phase coincided with the beginning of the forced mass collectivization of agriculture and the nationalization of the few remaining private enterprises . Many of those who had been arrested in the 1920s would continue to remain in prison throughout the 1930s and beyond
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Kolkhoz
A KOLKHOZ (Russian : колхо́з, IPA: ( listen ), Russian plural kolkhozy, anglicized plural kolkhozes) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Kolkhozes existed along with state farms or sovkhoz (plural sovkhozy or sovkhozes). These were the two components of the socialized farm sector that began to emerge in Soviet agriculture after the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917, as an antithesis both to the feudal structure of impoverished serfdom and aristocratic landlords and to individual or family farming . The 1920s were characterized by spontaneous emergence of collective farms, under influence of traveling propaganda workers. Initially a collective farm resembled an updated version of the traditional Russian "commune ", the generic "farming association" (zemledel’cheskaya artel ’), the association for joint cultivation of land (TOZ), and finally the kolkhoz
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August Uprising
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Red Army
Red Army
*
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Jan Zaprudnik
JAN ZAPRUDNIK (Belarusian : Янка Запруднік / Janka Zaprudnik, real name SIARHEJ VILčYCKI Сяргей Вільчыцкі; born 1926, Mir ) is an American historian and publicist of Belarusan descent. He is also one of the leaders of the Belarusian community in the United States and an honoured member of the Belarusian PEN-centre . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY Jan Zaprudnik was born into a family of school teachers in what was then the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
. During the Occupation of Belarus
Belarus
by Nazi Germany Zaprudnik graduated from the Gymnasium in Baranavičy and studied at a high school there. In 1944 Jan Zaprudnik immigrated to Germany. He later worked in mines in Great Britain
Great Britain

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